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DNA methylation is implicated in mammalian brain development and plasticity underlying learning and memory. We report the genome-wide composition, patterning, cell specificity, and dynamics of DNA methylation at single-base resolution in human and mouse frontal cortex throughout their lifespan. Widespread methylome reconfiguration occurs during fetal to(More)
Owing to the risk of insertional mutagenesis, viral transduction has been increasingly replaced by nonviral methods to generate induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). We report the use of 'minicircle' DNA, a vector type that is free of bacterial DNA and capable of high expression in cells, for this purpose. Here we use a single minicircle vector to(More)
SUMMARY We describe a simple general formula for approximating the p-value for testing a scalar parameter in the presence of nuisance parameters. The formula covers both frequentist and Bayesian contexts and does not require explicit nuisance parame-terisation. Implementation is discussed in terms of computer algebra packages. Examples are given and the(More)
Ectopic expression of transcription factors can reprogram somatic cells to a pluripotent state. However, most of the studies used skin fibroblasts as the starting population for reprogramming, which usually take weeks for expansion from a single biopsy. We show here that induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can be generated from adult human adipose stem(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury in newborn infants represents a major cause of cerebral palsy, development delay, and epilepsy. Stem cell-based therapy has the potential to rescue and replace the ischemic tissue caused by HI and to restore function. However, the mechanisms by which stem cell transplants induce functional recovery(More)
Kinetic and catalytic properties of the DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase HhaI are described. With poly(dG-dC) as substrate, the reaction proceeds by an equilibrium (or processive) ordered Bi-Bi mechanism in which DNA binds to the enzyme first, followed by S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet). After methyl transfer, S-adenosylhomocysteine (AdoHcy) dissociates(More)
Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) generated by de-differentiation of adult somatic cells offer potential solutions for the ethical issues surrounding human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), as well as their immunologic rejection after cellular transplantation. However, although hiPSCs have been described as "embryonic stem cell-like", these cells(More)
BACKGROUND Recent studies have shown that stem cell therapy can promote tissue regeneration; however, monitoring stem cells in vivo remains problematic owing to limitations of conventional histological assays and imaging modalities. METHODS AND RESULTS Murine embryonic stem (ES) cells were stably transduced with a lentiviral vector carrying a novel(More)
An important risk in the clinical application of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), including human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells (hESCs and hiPSCs), is teratoma formation by residual undifferentiated cells. We raised a monoclonal antibody against hESCs, designated anti-stage-specific embryonic antigen (SSEA)-5, which binds a previously(More)
Single-cell quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) combined with high-throughput arrays allows the analysis of gene expression profiles at a molecular level in approximately 11 h after cell sample collection. We present here a high-content microfluidic real-time platform as a powerful tool for comparatively investigating the regulation of developmental(More)