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In Arabidopsis thaliana, urease transcript levels increased sharply between 2 and 4 d after germination (DAG) and were maintained at maximal levels until at least 8 DAG. Seed urease specific activity declined upon germination but began to increase in seedlings 2 DAG, reaching approximately 75% of seed activity by 8 DAG. Urea levels showed a small transient(More)
Mutation in Eu3 eliminates activity of both soybean ureases, the embryo-specific (encoded by Eu1) and the tissue-ubiquitous (encoded by Eu4). eu3-e1 is a completely recessive null allele. Eu3-e3 is a semi-dominant specifying 0.1% wild-type urease activity in the homozygous state and 5-10% as a heterozygote (Meyer-Bothling et al. 1987). Antibodies to plant(More)
Mutation of either arginase structural gene (ARGAH1 or ARGAH2 encoding arginine [Arg] amidohydrolase-1 and -2, respectively) resulted in increased formation of lateral and adventitious roots in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seedlings and increased nitric oxide (NO) accumulation and efflux, detected by the fluorogenic traps(More)
By a non-destructive urease screen of M2 soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr. cv. Williams) seeds, four true-breeding mutants (n4, n6, n7 and n8) were recovered which lack most (n6, n8) or all (n4, n7) embryo-specific urease activity. This trait was due to a single, recessive lesion at the Sun (seed urease-null) locus identified earlier in an exotic germplasm(More)
To shed light on the metabolic role of two mitochondrial transporters for basic amino acids in Arabidopsis, we compared their functional properties in liposomes and expression during germination. Recombinant and purified BAC2, as previously reported for BAC1, transported various basic L-amino acids upon reconstitution in phospholipid vesicles. Both(More)
Soybean (Glycine max L. [Merrill]) seed lipoxygenase cDNA clones were recovered from two cDNA libraries: a size-selected library in pBR322 and an expression library in pUC8. The pUC8 library was made with total poly(A)(+) embryo RNA and was screened with antiserum to lipoxygenase-1, one of 3 seed lipoxygenase isozymes. Three lipoxygenase antigen-producing(More)
We assayed the in vivo activity of the ureases of soybean (Glycine max) embryos by genetically eliminating the abundant embryo-specific urease, the ubiquitous urease, or a background urease. Mutant embryos accumulated urea (250-fold over progenitor) only when lacking all three ureases and only when developed on plants lacking the ubiquitous urease. Thus,(More)
Allantoin catabolism studies have been extended to intact leaf tissue of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.). Phenyl phosphordiamidate, one of the most potent urease inhibitors known, does not inhibit (14)CO(2) release from [2,7-(14)C]allantoin (urea labeled), but inhibits urea dependent CO(2) release >/=99.9% under similar conditions. Furthermore, (14)CO(2) and(More)
A Mn(2+)-dependent enzymic breakdown of allantoate has been detected in crude and partially purified extracts of developing soybeans. The products detected were CO(2), NH(3), glyoxylate, labile glyoxylate derivatives, and low levels of urea. Urea is initially produced at less than 10% the rate of urease-independent CO(2) release indicating that the activity(More)
The soybean genome duplicated ∼14 and 45 million years ago and has many paralogous genes, including those in urease activation (emplacement of Ni and CO(2) in the active site). Activation requires the UreD and UreF proteins, each encoded by two paralogues. UreG, a third essential activation protein, is encoded by the single-copy Eu3, and eu3 mutants lack(More)