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Adipose tissue contains substantial stores of retinoid (retinol+retinyl ester) that, quantitatively, are second only to retinoid stores in the liver. Our studies show that retinoid levels in adipose tissue are markedly influenced by dietary retinoid intake. Because lipoprotein lipase (LPL) increases the uptake of lipoproteins and lipid emulsion particles by(More)
Altered lipoprotein lipase regulation associated with diabetes leading to the development of hypertriglyceridemia might be attributed to possible changes in content and the fine structure of heparan sulfate and its associated lipoprotein lipase. Adipocyte cell surface is the primary site of synthesis of lipoprotein lipase and the enzyme is bound to cell(More)
Lipoprotein lipase (LPL), the rate limiting enzyme for hydrolysis of lipoprotein triglyceride, also mediates nonenzymatic interactions between lipoproteins and heparan sulfate proteoglycans. To determine whether cell surface LPL increases LDL binding to cells, bovine milk LPL was added to upregulated and nonupregulated human fibroblasts along with media(More)
Vessel wall subendothelial extracellular matrix, a dense mesh formed of collagens, fibronectin, laminin, and proteoglycans, has important roles in lipid and lipoprotein retention and cell adhesion. In atherosclerosis, vessel wall heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG) are decreased and we therefore tested whether selective loss of HSPG affects lipoprotein(More)
The cause and consequence of altered proteoglycans in atherosclerosis are poorly understood. To determine whether proteoglycans affect monocyte binding, we studied the effects of heparin and proteoglycan degrading enzymes on THP-1 monocyte adhesion to subendothelial matrix (SEM). Monocyte binding increased about 2-fold after SEM was treated with heparinase.(More)
Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) increases the cellular uptake and degradation of LDL by fibroblasts and macrophages via a heparin-sensitive process. The roles of the LDL receptor, LDL receptor-related protein (LRP), and proteoglycans in this process were studied. In up-regulated human fibroblasts, LPL increased degradation of 125I-low density lipoprotein (LDL) (5(More)
Lipoprotein lipase (LPL), the major enzyme responsible for the hydrolysis of circulating lipoprotein triglyceride molecules, is synthesized in myocytes and adipocytes but functions while bound to heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) on the luminal surface of vascular endothelial cells. This requires transfer of LPL from the abluminal side to the luminal(More)
BACKGROUND Individuals treated with the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitor anacetrapib exhibit a reduction in both LDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B (ApoB) in response to monotherapy or combination therapy with a statin. It is not clear how anacetrapib exerts these effects; therefore, the goal of this study was to determine the kinetic(More)
Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is made by several cell types, including macrophages within the atherosclerotic lesion. LPL, a dimer of identical subunits, has high affinity for heparin and cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs). Several studies have shown that cell surface HSPGs can mediate cell binding to adhesion proteins. Here, we tested whether(More)
Adipose fat storage is thought to require uptake of circulating triglyceride (TG)-derived fatty acids via lipoprotein lipase (LpL). To determine how LpL affects the biology of adipose tissue, we created adipose-specific LpL knock-out (ATLO) mice, and we compared them with whole body LpL knock-out mice rescued with muscle LpL expression (MCK/L0) and wild(More)