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To reduce treatment of indolent prostate cancer (PCa), biomarkers are needed to improve identification of patients with a low-risk of having aggressive disease. Over-treatment of these patients occurs because of uncertainty in the aggressiveness of the entire tumor based on the biopsies, which do not accurately sample multifocal tumors. Circulating(More)
Glucocorticoids (GCs) are key mediators of stress response and are widely used as pharmacological agents to treat immune diseases, such as asthma and inflammatory bowel disease, and certain types of cancer. GCs act mainly by activating the GC receptor (GR), which interacts with other transcription factors to regulate gene expression. Here, we combined(More)
Glucocorticoids (GCs) mediate physiological responses to environmental stress and are commonly used as pharmaceuticals. GCs act primarily through the GC receptor (GR, a transcription factor). Despite their clear biomedical importance, little is known about the genetic architecture of variation in GC response. Here we provide an initial assessment of(More)
It has been suggested that pharmacogenomic phenotypes are influenced by genetic variants with larger effect sizes than other phenotypes, such as complex disease risk. This is presumed to reflect the fact that relevant environmental factors (drug exposure) are appropriately measured and taken into account. To test this hypothesis, we performed a systematic(More)
Many drugs used to treat inflammatory diseases are ineffective in a substantial proportion of patients. Identifying patients that are likely to respond to specific therapies would facilitate personalized treatment strategies that could improve outcomes while reducing costs and risks of adverse events. Despite these clear benefits, there are limited examples(More)
Glucocorticoids (GCs) are steroid hormones widely used as pharmaceutical interventions, which act mainly by regulating gene expression levels. A large fraction of patients (∼30%), especially those of African descent, show a weak response to treatment. To interrogate the contribution of variable transcriptional response to inter-ethnic differences, we(More)
Clinical response to glucocorticoids, steroid hormones widely used as pharmaceuticals, varies extensively in that many individuals (∼30%) show a weak response to treatment. Although little is known about the molecular basis of this variation, regulatory polymorphisms are likely to play a key role given that glucocorticoids act largely through activation of(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has familial aggregation in African Americans (AAs), but little is known about the molecular genetic susceptibility. Mapping studies using the Immunochip genotyping array expand the number of susceptibility loci for IBD in Caucasians to 163, but the contribution of the 163 loci and European admixture to IBD(More)
BACKGROUND Glucocorticoids (GCs) are steroid hormones used to induce remission in moderate-to-severe inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). A substantial fraction of patients do not respond to GC treatment and require alternate therapies or surgery. At present, non-response can only be assessed empirically by observing continued disease activity. METHODS To(More)
Glucocorticoids (GC) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2 D3) are steroid hormones with anti-inflammatory properties with enhanced effects when combined. We previously showed that transcriptional response to GCs was correlated with inter-individual and inter-ethnic cellular response. Here, we profiled cellular and transcriptional responses to 1,25(OH)2(More)