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Stem cells reside in specialized microenvironments or 'niches' that regulate their function. In vitro studies using hypoxic culture conditions (<5% O2) have revealed strong regulatory links between O2 availability and functions of stem and precursor cells. Although some stem cells are perivascular, others may occupy hypoxic niches and be regulated by O2(More)
Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl 4-hydroxylases are a family of iron- and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases that negatively regulate the stability of several proteins that have established roles in adaptation to hypoxic or oxidative stress. These proteins include the transcriptional activators HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha. The ability of the(More)
Changes in cerebral blood volume due to augmented or diminished numbers of blood-perfused capillaries can be studied in small animals by optical methods. Capillary mean transit time was determined by detection of the passage of a hemodilution bolus through a region of the parietal cerebral cortical surface, using a reflectance spectrophotometer through a(More)
Diabetes is associated with extensive microvascular pathology and decreased expression of the glucose transporter (GLUT-1) in retina, but not brain. To explore the basis of these differences, the authors simultaneously measured glucose influx (micromol x g(-1) x min(-1)) and blood flow (mL x g(-1) x min(-1)) in retina and brain cortex of nondiabetic control(More)
A co-morbidity of sleep apnoea is hypertension associated with elevated sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) which may result from conditioning to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH). Our hypothesis is that SNA depends on input to the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) from neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) that release arginine vasopressin (AVP)(More)
Temperature coefficients of both cat and toad brain have been calculated for the active metabolic state induced by electrical stimulation. Values are higher than most of the values previously reported for "rest" metabolism, whether calculated from Arrhenius plots or from linear graphs. Relative rates of oxidative metabolism were obtained by measuring the(More)
Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a transcription factor that regulates the adaptive response to hypoxia in mammalian cells. It consists of a regulatory subunit HIF-1alpha, which accumulates under hypoxic conditions, and a constitutively expressed subunit HIF-1beta. In this study we analyzed HIF-1alpha expression in the rat cerebral cortex after(More)
Several growth factors have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We considered whether the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is involved in the vascular pathology associated with most cases of AD. We observed enhanced VEGF immunoreactivity in clusters of reactive astrocytes in the neocortex of subjects with AD compared to(More)
Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a transcription factor that regulates adaptive responses to the lack of oxygen in mammalian cells. HIF-1 consists of two proteins, HIF-1alpha and HIF-1beta. HIF-1alpha accumulates under hypoxic conditions, whereas HIF-1beta is constitutively expressed. HIF-1alpha and HIF-1beta expression were measured during adaptation(More)
Rats were exposed to hypobaric hypoxia (0.5 atm) for up to 3 wk. Hypoxic rats failed to gain weight but maintained normal brain water and ion content. Blood hematocrit was increased by 48% to a level of 71% after 3 wk of hypoxia compared with littermate controls. Brain blood flow was increased by an average of 38% in rats exposed to 15 min of 10% normobaric(More)