Joseph C. LaManna

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Stem cells reside in specialized microenvironments or 'niches' that regulate their function. In vitro studies using hypoxic culture conditions (<5% O2) have revealed strong regulatory links between O2 availability and functions of stem and precursor cells. Although some stem cells are perivascular, others may occupy hypoxic niches and be regulated by O2(More)
Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl 4-hydroxylases are a family of iron- and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases that negatively regulate the stability of several proteins that have established roles in adaptation to hypoxic or oxidative stress. These proteins include the transcriptional activators HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha. The ability of the(More)
Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a heterodimeric transcription factor that regulates transcriptional activation of several genes responsive to the lack of oxygen, including erythropoietin, vascular endothelial growth factor, glycolytic enzymes, and glucose transporters. Because the involvement of mitochondria in the regulation of HIF-1 has been(More)
We have studied the ultrastructural features of vascular lesions and mitochondria in brain vascular wall cells from human AD brain biopsy, human short postmortem brain tissues, and yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) and C57B6/SJL transgenic positive (Tg+) mice overexpressing amyloid beta precursor protein (AbetaPP). In situ hybridization using mitochondrial(More)
Brain function depends exquisitely on oxygen for energy metabolism. Measurements of brain tissue oxygen tension, by a variety of quantitative and qualitative techniques, going back for >50 years, have led to a number of significant conclusions. These conclusions have important consequences for understanding brain physiology as it is now being explored by(More)
Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a transcription factor that regulates adaptive responses to the lack of oxygen in mammalian cells. HIF-1 consists of two proteins, HIF-1alpha and HIF-1beta. HIF-1alpha accumulates under hypoxic conditions, whereas HIF-1beta is constitutively expressed. HIF-1alpha and HIF-1beta expression were measured during adaptation(More)
Several growth factors have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We considered whether the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is involved in the vascular pathology associated with most cases of AD. We observed enhanced VEGF immunoreactivity in clusters of reactive astrocytes in the neocortex of subjects with AD compared to(More)
Chronic exposure to a hypoxic environment leads to structural and functional adaptations in the rat brain. One significant adaptation is a decrease in intercapillary distances through a near doubling of the capillary density, which begins after about 1 week of hypoxic exposure and is completed by 3 weeks. Hypoxic angiogenesis is controlled by activation of(More)
Rats were exposed to hypobaric hypoxia (0.5 atm) for up to 3 wk. Hypoxic rats failed to gain weight but maintained normal brain water and ion content. Blood hematocrit was increased by 48% to a level of 71% after 3 wk of hypoxia compared with littermate controls. Brain blood flow was increased by an average of 38% in rats exposed to 15 min of 10% normobaric(More)
Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a transcription factor that regulates the adaptive response to hypoxia in mammalian cells. It consists of a regulatory subunit HIF-1alpha, which accumulates under hypoxic conditions, and a constitutively expressed subunit HIF-1beta. In this study we analyzed HIF-1alpha expression in the rat cerebral cortex after(More)