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Changes in cerebral blood volume due to augmented or diminished numbers of blood-perfused capillaries can be studied in small animals by optical methods. Capillary mean transit time was determined by detection of the passage of a hemodilution bolus through a region of the parietal cerebral cortical surface, using a reflectance spectrophotometer through a(More)
Temperature coefficients of both cat and toad brain have been calculated for the active metabolic state induced by electrical stimulation. Values are higher than most of the values previously reported for "rest" metabolism, whether calculated from Arrhenius plots or from linear graphs. Relative rates of oxidative metabolism were obtained by measuring the(More)
Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a transcription factor that regulates the adaptive response to hypoxia in mammalian cells. It consists of a regulatory subunit HIF-1alpha, which accumulates under hypoxic conditions, and a constitutively expressed subunit HIF-1beta. In this study we analyzed HIF-1alpha expression in the rat cerebral cortex after(More)
Several growth factors have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We considered whether the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is involved in the vascular pathology associated with most cases of AD. We observed enhanced VEGF immunoreactivity in clusters of reactive astrocytes in the neocortex of subjects with AD compared to(More)
Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a transcription factor that regulates adaptive responses to the lack of oxygen in mammalian cells. HIF-1 consists of two proteins, HIF-1alpha and HIF-1beta. HIF-1alpha accumulates under hypoxic conditions, whereas HIF-1beta is constitutively expressed. HIF-1alpha and HIF-1beta expression were measured during adaptation(More)
Unilateral chemical lesion of the nucleus locus coeruleus in rats produced unilateral depletion of ipsilateral cortical norepinephrine. Norepinephrine depletion was not associated with changes in "resting" metabolic balance of the cerebral cortex, as determined by in situ reflection spectrophotometry of the redox state of cytochrome oxidase. Norepinephrine(More)
Rats were exposed to hypobaric hypoxia (0.5 atm) for up to 3 wk. Hypoxic rats failed to gain weight but maintained normal brain water and ion content. Blood hematocrit was increased by 48% to a level of 71% after 3 wk of hypoxia compared with littermate controls. Brain blood flow was increased by an average of 38% in rats exposed to 15 min of 10% normobaric(More)
Cortical metabolites and regional cerebral intracellular pH (pHi) were measured in normoglycemic (NM), acute hyperglycemic (AH), and chronic hyperglycemic (CH, 2 week duration, streptozotocin-induced) Wistar rat brains during cardiac arrest and resuscitation. During total ischemia in AH and CH rats (plasma glucose approximately 30 mM), cortical ATP, PCr,(More)
A co-morbidity of sleep apnoea is hypertension associated with elevated sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) which may result from conditioning to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH). Our hypothesis is that SNA depends on input to the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) from neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) that release arginine vasopressin (AVP)(More)
The brain is dependent on glucose as a primary energy substrate, but is capable of utilizing ketones such as beta-hydroxybutyrate (beta HB) and acetoacetate (AcAc), as occurs with fasting, prolonged starvation or chronic feeding of a high fat/low carbohydrate diet (ketogenic diet). In this study, the local cerebral metabolic rate of glucose consumption(More)