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Obesity and hyperinsulinism are known to be major stimuli of leptin production by adipose tissue, leading to increased leptin levels in the circulation. It has also been demonstrated that increased leptin production leads to satiety, possibly by decreasing the levels of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the central nervous system (CNS). Because obesity and(More)
The purpose of the study was to examine the role of P2 purinergic receptors in mechanisms of cardiovascular control mediated by the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), a major integrative site in the brainstem involved in the reflex coordination of cardiorespiratory and visceral response patterns. Microinjections of ATP and its analogues were made into the(More)
Obesity and high fat diets are associated with an increased prevalence of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and hypertension. However, the mechanism(s) linking obesity and high fat diet to these metabolic and cardiovascular disorders are not fully elucidated. Leptin stimulates the formation of pro-opiomelanocortin and its products. The stimulation of the(More)
Neuronal apoptosis has been demonstrated to be a significant factor in neurological deficiencies associated with diabetes, and these deficiencies are exaggerated following ischemia. Diabetic rats have an increased basal level of apoptosis compared to non-diabetics and it has been previously demonstrated that infarct volumes were greater in diabetic animals(More)
The autoregulation of insulin secretion was studied using perifused and incubated pancreatic islets of normal (obOb) mice and of their obese-hyperglycemic (obob) littermates. Islets secreted more insulin when they were perifused than when they were incubated and insulin was allowed to accumulate in the medium. When rat insulin was added to the incubation(More)
The aim of this study is to explore the mechanism by which diabetes exaggerates cerebral stroke and its outcome. Since ischemia can be related to not only necrosis but apoptosis as well, we compared the development of apoptosis in STZ-diabetic rats and STZ-diabetic rats subjected to occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA). 24-48 hr following MCA(More)
OBJECTIVES We have previously demonstrated that cocaine exposure leads to apoptosis in rat testes. To understand further the mechanism of cocaine-induced testicular damage, we studied the effect of cocaine on cytochrome c release from the mitochondria. We also determined the caspase 3, caspase 8, and caspase 9 activities in rat testes after chronic cocaine(More)
In a previous studywe demonstrated the deleterious effect of cigarette smoke on spermatogenesis in the testis of peripubertal Sprague-Dawley rats. In this study we investigated the development of apoptosis as a possible contributing factor to the pathogenic mechanism underlying these effects. Peripubertal rats were exposed to cigarette smoke with the Walton(More)
Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) has been demonstrated to exert metabolic as well as cardiovascular actions similar to those of insulin. In previous studies, we have demonstrated that IGF-I acts both peripherally and centrally to increase muscle and renal blood flow and to decrease mean arterial pressure (MAP). Insulin has similar cardiovascular actions(More)