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Drugs targeting insomnia ideally promote sleep throughout the night, maintain normal sleep architecture, and are devoid of residual effects associated with morning sedation. These features of an ideal compound are not only dependent upon pharmacokinetics, receptor binding kinetics, potency and pharmacodynamic activity, but also upon a compound’s mechanism(More)
We report on the observation of two neutrino-induced events which have an estimated deposited energy in the IceCube detector of 1.04±0.16 and 1.14±0.17 PeV, respectively, the highest neutrino energies observed so far. These events are consistent with fully contained particle showers induced by neutral-current ν(e,μ,τ) (ν(e,μ,τ)) or charged-current ν(e)(More)
As newly synthesized polypeptides emerge from the ribosome, they interact with chaperones and targeting factors that assist in folding and targeting to the proper location in the cell. In Escherichia coli, the chaperone trigger factor (TF) binds to nascent polypeptides early in biosynthesis facilitated by its affinity for the ribosomal proteins L23 and L29(More)
Modulation of TASK-3 (Kcnk9) potassium channels affect neurotransmitter release in thalamocortical centers and other sleep-related nuclei having the capacity to regulate arousal cycles and REM sleep changes associated with mood disorders and antidepressant action. Circumstantial evidence from this and previous studies suggest the potential for TASK-3 to be(More)
We have systematically analyzed the molecular environment of the signal sequence of a growing secretory protein from Escherichia coli using a stage- and site-specific cross-linking approach. Immediately after emerging from the ribosome, the signal sequence of pOmpA is accessible to Ffh, the protein component of the bacterial signal recognition particle, and(More)
The herpes simplex virus (HSV) immediate early protein ICP47 inhibits the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP)-dependent peptide translocation. As a consequence, empty major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules are retained in the endoplasmic reticulum and recognition of HSV-infected cells by cytotoxic T lymphocytes is(More)
We report on results of an all-sky search for high-energy neutrino events interacting within the IceCube neutrino detector conducted between May 2010 and May 2012. The search follows up on the previous detection of two PeV neutrino events, with improved sensitivity and extended energy coverage down to about 30 TeV. Twenty-six additional events were(More)
Current treatments for insomnia, such as zolpidem (Ambien) and eszopiclone (Lunesta), are γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA)-positive allosteric modulators that carry a number of side effects including the potential to disrupt cognition. In an effort to develop better tolerated medicines, we have identified dual orexin 1 and 2 receptor antagonists (DORAs),(More)
Dual orexin receptor antagonists (DORAs) induce sleep by blocking orexin 1 and orexin 2 receptor-mediated activities responsible for regulating wakefulness. DORAs represent a potential alternative mechanism to the current standard of care that includes the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor-positive allosteric modulators, eszopiclone and zolpidem. This(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVE Sleep and mood disorders have long been understood to have strong genetic components, and there is considerable comorbidity of sleep abnormalities and mood disorders, suggesting the involvement of common genetic pathways. Here, we examine a candidate gene implicated in the regulation of both sleep and affective behavior using a knockout(More)