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Abundant plant biomass has the potential to become a sustainable source of fuels and chemicals. Realizing this potential requires the economical conversion of recalcitrant lignocellulose into useful intermediates, such as sugars. We report a high-yielding chemical process for the hydrolysis of biomass into monosaccharides. Adding water gradually to a(More)
Node identification in ad hoc wireless networks is an inherently difficult problem: nodes may enter and leave the network freely, the transfer medium is public, and intermediary hardware which could otherwise authenticate nodes— servers, routers, etc.—are not present. Although well-known identification and authentication paradigms have been adapted to ad(More)
COVER ARTICLE Raines et al. Mechanistic insights on the conversion of sugars into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural PERSPECTIVE Artero et al. Water electrolysis and photoelectrolysis on electrodes engineered using biological and bio-inspired molecular systems A sustainable bio-economy requires the efficient utilization of all of the components of biomass. After(More)
Lignocellulosic biomass is a plentiful and renewable resource for fuels and chemicals. Despite this potential, nearly all renewable fuels and chemicals are now produced from edible resources, such as starch, sugars, and oils; the challenges imposed by notoriously recalcitrant and heterogeneous lignocellulosic feedstocks have made their production from(More)
Nearly one hundred years ago, the fermentative production of acetone by Clostridium acetobutylicum provided a crucial alternative source of this solvent for manufacture of the explosive cordite. Today there is a resurgence of interest in solventogenic Clostridium species to produce n-butanol and ethanol for use as renewable alternative transportation fuels.(More)
Chemical biology relies on effective synthetic chemistry for building molecules to probe and modulate biological function. Olefin metathesis in organic solvents is a valuable addition to this armamentarium, and developments during the previous decade are enabling metathesis in aqueous solvents for the manipulation of biomolecules. Functional group-tolerant(More)
Olefin metathesis in aqueous solvents is sought for applications in green chemistry and with the hydrophilic substrates of chemical biology, such as proteins and polysaccharides. Most demonstrations of metathesis in water, however, utilize exotic complexes. We have examined the performance of conventional catalysts in homogeneous water/organic mixtures,(More)
— Robust key management services are central to ensuring privacy protection in wireless ad hoc network settings. Existing approaches to key management, which often rely on trusted, centralized entities, are not well–suited for the highly dynamic, spontaneous nature of ad hoc networks. This paper surveys emergent approaches to key management in ad hoc(More)
Experimental General Cellulose (medium cotton linters, C6288) was from Sigma Chemical (St. Louis, MO). Other commercial chemicals were of reagent grade or better and were used without further purification. FluoroFlash ® fluorous silica gel was from Aldrich Chemical (Milwaukee, WI). The term " concentrated under reduced pressure " refers to the removal of(More)
Tuning the electronic and steric environment of olefin metathesis catalysts with specialized ligands can adapt them to broader applications, including metathesis in aqueous solvents. Bidentate salicylaldimine ligands are known to stabilize ruthenium alkylidene complexes, as well as allow ring-closing metathesis in protic media. Here, we report the synthesis(More)