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High resolution measurements of the current through individual ion channels activated by acetylcholine (AChR- channels) in frog muscle have shown that these currents are discrete pulse-like events with durations of a few milliseconds. Fluctuation and relaxation measurements of end-plate currents have led to the conclusion that the rate of channel opening(More)
Voltage-dependent Na+ channels are thought to sense membrane potential with fixed charges located within the membrane's electrical field. Measurement of open probability (Po) as a function of membrane potential gives a quantitative indication of the number of such charges that move through the field in opening the channel. We have used single-channel(More)
Purified smooth muscle myosin in the in vitro motility assay propels actin filaments at 1/10 the velocity, yet produces 3-4 times more force than skeletal muscle myosin. At the level of a single myosin molecule, these differences in force and actin filament velocity may be reflected in the size and duration of single motion and force-generating events, or(More)
1. The blocking effects of Ba+ and H+ on the inward K current during anomalous rectification of the giant egg membrane of the starfish, Mediaster aequalis, were studied using voltage clamp techniques. 2. External Ba2+ at a low concentration (10--100 micron) suppresses the inward K current; the extent of suppression, expressed as the ratio of currents with(More)
The relationship between Ca2+ release ("Ca2+ sparks") through ryanodine-sensitive Ca2+ release channels in the sarcoplasmic reticulum and KCa channels was examined in smooth muscle cells from rat cerebral arteries. Whole cell potassium currents at physiological membrane potentials (-40 mV) and intracellular Ca2+ were measured simultaneously, using the(More)
Several classes of the myosin superfamily are distinguished by their "double-headed" structure, where each head is a molecular motor capable of hydrolyzing ATP and interacting with actin to generate force and motion. The functional significance of this dimeric structure, however, has eluded investigators since its discovery in the late 1960s. Using an(More)
Point mutations in cardiac myosin, the heart's molecular motor, produce distinct clinical phenotypes: hypertrophic (HCM) and dilated (DCM) cardiomyopathy. Do mutations alter myosin's molecular mechanics in a manner that is predictive of the clinical outcome? We have directly characterized the maximal force-generating capacity (F(max)) of two HCM (R403Q,(More)
Skeletal muscle's ability to shorten and lengthen against a load is a fundamental property, presumably reflecting the inherent load-dependence of the myosin molecular motor. Here we report the velocity of a single actin filament translocated by a mini-ensemble of skeletal myosin approximately 8 heads under constant loads up to 15 pN in a laser trap assay.(More)
Real synaptic systems consist of a nonuniform population of synapses with a broad spectrum of probability and response distributions varying between synapses, and broad amplitude distributions of postsynaptic unitary responses within a given synapse. A common approach to such systems has been to assume identical synapses and recover apparent quantal(More)