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Entry of Ca through voltage-dependent Ca channels is an important regulator of the function of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and neurons. Although Ca channels have been extensively studied since the first descriptions of Ca action potentials (P. Fatt and B. Katz. J. Physiol. Lond. 120: 171-204, 1953), the permeation rate of Ca through single Ca channels(More)
High resolution measurements of the current through individual ion channels activated by acetylcholine (AChR- channels) in frog muscle have shown that these currents are discrete pulse-like events with durations of a few milliseconds. Fluctuation and relaxation measurements of end-plate currents have led to the conclusion that the rate of channel opening(More)
Voltage-dependent Na+ channels are thought to sense membrane potential with fixed charges located within the membrane's electrical field. Measurement of open probability (Po) as a function of membrane potential gives a quantitative indication of the number of such charges that move through the field in opening the channel. We have used single-channel(More)
1. The blocking effects of Ba+ and H+ on the inward K current during anomalous rectification of the giant egg membrane of the starfish, Mediaster aequalis, were studied using voltage clamp techniques. 2. External Ba2+ at a low concentration (10--100 micron) suppresses the inward K current; the extent of suppression, expressed as the ratio of currents with(More)
Individual Na+ channels of dissociated frog skeletal muscle cells at 10 degrees C fail to inactivate in 0.02% of depolarizing pulses, thus producing bursts of openings lasting hundreds of milliseconds. We present here a kinetic analysis of 87 such bursts that were recorded in multi-channel patches at four pulse potentials. We used standard dwell-time(More)
Single Ca2+ channel and whole cell currents were measured in smooth muscle cells dissociated from resistance-sized (100-microns diameter) rat cerebral arteries. We sought to quantify the magnitude of Ca2+ channel currents and activity under the putative physiological conditions of these cells: 2 mM [Ca2+]o, steady depolarizations to potentials between -50(More)
Several classes of the myosin superfamily are distinguished by their "double-headed" structure, where each head is a molecular motor capable of hydrolyzing ATP and interacting with actin to generate force and motion. The functional significance of this dimeric structure, however, has eluded investigators since its discovery in the late 1960s. Using an(More)
The relationship between Ca2+ release ("Ca2+ sparks") through ryanodine-sensitive Ca2+ release channels in the sarcoplasmic reticulum and KCa channels was examined in smooth muscle cells from rat cerebral arteries. Whole cell potassium currents at physiological membrane potentials (-40 mV) and intracellular Ca2+ were measured simultaneously, using the(More)
We have studied the effect of N-bromoacetamide (NBA) on the behavior of single sodium channel currents in excised patches of rat myotube membrane at 10 degree C. Inward sodium currents were activated by voltage steps from holding potentials of about -100 mV to test potentials of -40 mV. The cytoplasmic-face solution was isotonic CsF. Application of NBA or(More)