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High resolution measurements of the current through individual ion channels activated by acetylcholine (AChR- channels) in frog muscle have shown that these currents are discrete pulse-like events with durations of a few milliseconds. Fluctuation and relaxation measurements of end-plate currents have led to the conclusion that the rate of channel opening(More)
Voltage-dependent Na+ channels are thought to sense membrane potential with fixed charges located within the membrane's electrical field. Measurement of open probability (Po) as a function of membrane potential gives a quantitative indication of the number of such charges that move through the field in opening the channel. We have used single-channel(More)
1. The blocking effects of Ba+ and H+ on the inward K current during anomalous rectification of the giant egg membrane of the starfish, Mediaster aequalis, were studied using voltage clamp techniques. 2. External Ba2+ at a low concentration (10--100 micron) suppresses the inward K current; the extent of suppression, expressed as the ratio of currents with(More)
The relationship between Ca2+ release ("Ca2+ sparks") through ryanodine-sensitive Ca2+ release channels in the sarcoplasmic reticulum and KCa channels was examined in smooth muscle cells from rat cerebral arteries. Whole cell potassium currents at physiological membrane potentials (-40 mV) and intracellular Ca2+ were measured simultaneously, using the(More)
Real synaptic systems consist of a nonuniform population of synapses with a broad spectrum of probability and response distributions varying between synapses, and broad amplitude distributions of postsynaptic unitary responses within a given synapse. A common approach to such systems has been to assume identical synapses and recover apparent quantal(More)
The measurement of single ion channel kinetics is difficult when those channels exhibit subconductance events. When the kinetics are fast, and when the current magnitudes are small, as is the case for Na+, Ca2+, and some K+ channels, these difficulties can lead to serious errors in the estimation of channel kinetics. I present here a method, based on the(More)
The ATP hydrolysis rate and shortening velocity of muscle are load-dependent. At the molecular level, myosin generates force and motion by coupling ATP hydrolysis to lever arm rotation. When a laser trap was used to apply load to single heads of expressed smooth muscle myosin (S1), the ADP release kinetics accelerated with an assistive load and slowed with(More)
Each of the heads of the motor protein myosin II is capable of supporting motion. A previous report showed that double-headed myosin generates twice the displacement of single-headed myosin (Tyska, M.J., D.E. Dupuis, W.H. Guilford, J.B. Patlak, G.S. Waller, K.M. Trybus, D.M. Warshaw, and S. Lowey. 1999. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 96:4402-4407). To(More)
Opening the Shaker K channel should be easy. Release the membrane potential that normally holds it closed, and massive stored molecular energies snap it rapidly and inexorably into its open configuration. Unlocking the inner secrets of this voltage-dependent channel's gating mechanism has proven to be much more difficult. An article by Ledwell and Aldrich(More)