Joseph B. Margolick

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To understand the high variability of the asymptomatic interval between primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection and the development of AIDS, we studied the evolution of the C2-V5 region of the HIV-1 env gene and of T-cell subsets in nine men with a moderate or slow rate of disease progression. They were monitored from the time of(More)
The capacity of HIV-1 to establish latent infection of CD4+ T cells may allow viral persistence despite immune responses and antiretroviral therapy. Measurements of infectious virus and viral RNA in plasma and of infectious virus, viral DNA and viral messenger RNA species in infected cells all suggest that HIV-1 replication continues throughout the course(More)
The hypothesis that quiescent CD4+ T lymphocytes carrying proviral DNA provide a reservoir for human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) in patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was examined. In a study of 22 patients successfully treated with HAART for up to 30 months, replication-competent virus was routinely recovered from resting(More)
BACKGROUND The rate of disease progression among persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) varies widely, and the relative prognostic value of markers of disease activity has not been defined. OBJECTIVE To compare clinical, serologic, cellular, and virologic markers for their ability to predict progression to the acquired(More)
Combination therapy for HIV-1 infection can reduce plasma virus to undetectable levels, indicating that prolonged treatment might eradicate the infection. However, HIV-1 can persist in a latent form in resting CD4+ T cells. We measured the decay rate of this latent reservoir in 34 treated adults whose plasma virus levels were undetectable. The mean(More)
Early in infection, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) generally uses the CCR5 chemokine receptor (along with CD4) for cellular entry. In many HIV-1-infected individuals, viral genotypic changes arise that allow the virus to use CXCR4 (either in addition to CCR5 or alone) as an entry coreceptor. This switch has been associated with an acceleration(More)
Latent HIV-1 persists in resting memory CD4+ T cells, even in patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). It has been unclear how stable this latent reservoir is and whether its persistence reflects replenishment by low-level viremia. Here we show that even in treated patients who have had no detectable viremia for as long as 7 years,(More)
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) suppresses HIV-1 replication but cannot eliminate the virus because HIV-1 establishes latent infection. Interruption of HAART leads to a rapid rebound of viremia, so life-long treatment is required. Efforts to purge the latent reservoir have focused on reactivating latent proviruses without inducing global T cell(More)
The natural history of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) viremia and its association with clinical outcomes after seroconversion was characterized in a cohort of homosexual men. HIV-1 RNA was measured by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in stored longitudinal plasma samples from 269 seroconverters. Subjects were generally(More)
To extend the understanding of host genetic determinants of HIV-1 control, we performed a genome-wide association study in a cohort of 2,554 infected Caucasian subjects. The study was powered to detect common genetic variants explaining down to 1.3% of the variability in viral load at set point. We provide overwhelming confirmation of three associations(More)