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Blast injury to the brain is the predominant cause of neurotrauma in current military conflicts, and its etiology is largely undefined. Using a compression-driven shock tube to simulate blast effects, we assessed the physiological, neuropathological, and neurobehavioral consequences of airblast exposure, and also evaluated the effect of a Kevlar protective(More)
Dynorphin A reduced lumbosacral blood flow, elevated cerebrospinal fluid lactic acid concentrations and caused flaccid hindlimb paralysis and striking neuropathological changes after its injection into the spinal subarachnoid space in rats. Coadministration of the vasodilator hydralazine substantially eliminated the paralytic, anaerobic metabolic and(More)
Psychological stress and traumatic brain injury (TBI) can both result in lasting neurobehavioral abnormalities. Post-traumatic stress disorder and blast induced TBI (bTBI) have become the most significant health issues in current military conflicts. Importantly, military bTBI virtually never occurs without stress. In this experiment, we assessed anxiety and(More)
Nerve growth factor (NGF) appears to act as a neurotrophic factor for basal forebrain and caudate-putamen cholinergic neurons. The mechanism by which NGF transduces its signal in these neurons is yet to be defined. Recent data indicate that the product of the trk gene, p140trk, is a critical component of the NGF receptor. Herein, we show that p140trk mRNA(More)
The overlapping pathologies and functional outcomes of blast-induced TBI (bTBI) and stress-related neurobehavioral disorders like post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are significant military health issues. Soldiers are exposed to multiple stressors with or without suffering bTBI, making diagnosis and treatment as well as experimental modeling of bTBI a(More)
A mouse model of repeated blast exposure was developed using a compressed air-driven shock tube, to study the increase in severity of traumatic brain injury (bTBI) after multiple blast exposures. Isoflurane anesthetized C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 13.9, 20.6, and 25 psi single blast overpressure (BOP1) and allowed to recover for 5 days. BOP1 at 20.6 psi(More)
De novo hippocampal neurogenesis contributes to functional recovery following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Enriched environment (EEN) can improve the outcome of TBI by positively affecting neurogenesis. Blast induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) characterized by memory impairment and increased anxiety levels, is a leading cause of chronic disability among(More)
Quantitative autoradiography was used to show the locations of mu-opiate receptor binding sites which are upregulated following chronic morphine treatment in rats. A saturating concentration of the mu-specific ligand [3H]D-ala2-N-methyl-Phe4,Gly-ol5-enkephalin was used to label sites in slide-mounted sections through one level of the thalamus in rats(More)
Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), a protein enriched in astrocytes, and Tau, a protein abundant in neuronal microtubules, are being widely studied as biomarkers of brain injury, and persistent severity-dependent increases in brain and blood have been reported. Studies on the acute changes of these proteins after blast exposure are limited. Using a(More)
EEP is a tripeptide structurally similar to thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) and, like TRH, it is found in the mammalian brain. TRH has been found to increase in brain regions after seizures and to be neuroprotective. EEP has also been shown to increase in brain regions following seizure activity. We therefore sought to determine whether the similarities(More)