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Blast injury to the brain is the predominant cause of neurotrauma in current military conflicts, and its etiology is largely undefined. Using a compression-driven shock tube to simulate blast effects, we assessed the physiological, neuropathological, and neurobehavioral consequences of airblast exposure, and also evaluated the effect of a Kevlar protective(More)
Dynorphin A reduced lumbosacral blood flow, elevated cerebrospinal fluid lactic acid concentrations and caused flaccid hindlimb paralysis and striking neuropathological changes after its injection into the spinal subarachnoid space in rats. Coadministration of the vasodilator hydralazine substantially eliminated the paralytic, anaerobic metabolic and(More)
Psychological stress and traumatic brain injury (TBI) can both result in lasting neurobehavioral abnormalities. Post-traumatic stress disorder and blast induced TBI (bTBI) have become the most significant health issues in current military conflicts. Importantly, military bTBI virtually never occurs without stress. In this experiment, we assessed anxiety and(More)
The overlapping pathologies and functional outcomes of blast-induced TBI (bTBI) and stress-related neurobehavioral disorders like post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are significant military health issues. Soldiers are exposed to multiple stressors with or without suffering bTBI, making diagnosis and treatment as well as experimental modeling of bTBI a(More)
De novo hippocampal neurogenesis contributes to functional recovery following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Enriched environment (EEN) can improve the outcome of TBI by positively affecting neurogenesis. Blast induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) characterized by memory impairment and increased anxiety levels, is a leading cause of chronic disability among(More)
Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), a protein enriched in astrocytes, and Tau, a protein abundant in neuronal microtubules, are being widely studied as biomarkers of brain injury, and persistent severity-dependent increases in brain and blood have been reported. Studies on the acute changes of these proteins after blast exposure are limited. Using a(More)
Immediately following a seizure, the severity of subsequent seizures is significantly reduced. The involvement of endogenous opioid systems as a physiological regulator of this postseizure inhibition was studied in rats using repeated maximal electroshock (MES) seizures. Both the opiate antagonist (-)-naloxone and morphine tolerance abolished the(More)
Nerve growth factor (NGF) appears to act as a neurotrophic factor for basal forebrain and caudate-putamen cholinergic neurons. The mechanism by which NGF transduces its signal in these neurons is yet to be defined. Recent data indicate that the product of the trk gene, p140trk, is a critical component of the NGF receptor. Herein, we show that p140trk mRNA(More)
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) represents a significant challenge for the civilian and military health care systems due to its high prevalence and overall complexity. Our earlier works showed evidence of neuroinflammation, a late onset of neurobehavioral changes, and lasting memory impairment in a rat model of mild blast-induced TBI (mbTBI). The aim of(More)
Cerebrospinal fluid taken from rats subjected to electroshock-induced seizures and injected into the cerebral ventricles of rats that had not been shocked increased the seizure threshold of the recipients. The anticonvulsant activity of the donor cerebrospinal fluid was antagonized by opioid antagonists and enhanced by peptidase inhibitors. These results(More)