Joseph Alexander Smith

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BACKGROUND Benign prostatic hyperplasia is commonly treated with alpha-adrenergic-receptor antagonists (alpha-blockers) or 5alpha-reductase inhibitors. The long-term effect of these drugs, singly or combined, on the risk of clinical progression is unknown. METHODS We conducted a long-term, double-blind trial (mean follow-up, 4.5 years) involving 3047 men(More)
PURPOSE The low rate of pelvic node metastasis in most contemporary series of patients undergoing radical prostatectomy for carcinoma of the prostate has been attributed to earlier and better patient selection than historical series. Alternatively, it has been suggested that the limited dissection commonly performed misses nodal metastasis in a substantial(More)
Molecular techniques have enabled behavioural ecologists to reassess mating systems from a genetic perspective. Studies of paternity frequently reveal that mating behaviour does not always reflect parentage, and may bring to light alternative mating tactics. Here we present a comparison of behavioural and genetic measures of male reproductive success in a(More)
Variation in male lifetime breeding success (LBS) is central to understanding selection, yet it has rarely been measured in natural populations of large mammals. Here, we first describe variation in the opportunity for selection in cohorts of Soay rams (Ovis aries) on the archipelago of St. Kilda, Scotland, that were born during years of varying population(More)
BACKGROUND In carcinoma of the bladder, both intravesical chemotherapy and immunotherapy can induce tumor regression and reduce the rate of recurrence, but the relative merits of these two therapies are unclear. We conducted a multi-institutional study to address this question. METHODS Patients with rapidly recurrent (stage Ta and T1) or in situ(More)
BACKGROUND Certain recent studies have demonstrated improved surgical outcome in patients with aortic dissection. We analyzed the surgical survival rates of patients with acute aortic dissections and the late prognosis of those with aortic dissection during a 30-year period. METHODS AND RESULTS Between 1963 and 1992, 360 patients (256 men and 104 women;(More)
Termites have developed cellulose digestion capabilities that allow them to obtain energy and nutrition from nutritionally poor food sources, such as lignocellulosic plant material and residues derived from it (e.g., wood and humus). Lower termites, which are equipped with both endogenous (i.e., of termite origin) and symbiotic cellulases, feed primarily on(More)
OBJECTIVE We investigated the disease-specific and metastasis-free survival rates in men with locally advanced (clinical stage T3) prostate cancer who were treated surgically. METHODS A retrospective, multi-institutional pooled analysis of the results of surgical treatment in 345 men with clinical stage T3 disease was performed. Survival curves were(More)
PURPOSE The prognostic significance of capsular incision (CPI) at radical retropubic prostatectomy remains to be defined. To evaluate this we compared prostate specific antigen recurrence for with CPI to that with established pathological groups. MATERIALS AND METHODS From January 1998 to December 2000, 409 men underwent radical retropubic prostatectomy(More)
The platelet P2T receptor plays a major role in platelet aggregation, and its antagonists are predicted to have significant therapeutic potential as antithrombotic agents. We have explored analogues of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is a weak, nonselective but competitive P2T receptor antagonist. Modification of the polyphosphate side chain to prevent(More)