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Postmenopausal osteoporosis in women is characterized by an increase in bone fragility and risk of fracture. In addition to transmenopausal decline in three-dimensional trabecular bone architecture, changes in intrinsic material properties (local stiffness, damping, and hardness) may contribute to increased bone fragility. In this study, nanoindentation was(More)
The atomic force microscope (AFM) can provide qualitative information by numerous imaging modes, but it can also provide quantitative information when calibrated cantilevers are used. In this article a new technique is demonstrated to calibrate AFM cantilevers using a reference piezolever. Experiments are performed on 13 different commercially available(More)
Chondrocytes, the cellular component of the articular cartilage, have long been recognized as strain-sensitive cells, and have the ability to sense mechanical stimulation through surface receptors and intracellular signaling pathways. This strain-induced biological response of chondrocytes has been exploited to facilitate chondrocyte culture in in vitro(More)
Plant development results from controlled cell divisions, structural modifications, and reorganizations of the cell wall. Thereby, regulation of cell wall behaviour takes place at multiple length scales involving compositional and architectural aspects in addition to various developmental and/or environmental factors. The physical properties of the primary(More)
The objective of this study was to determine the viscoelastic properties present within the intermediate zone of the porcine temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc using nanoindentation. A 50-μm conospherical indenter tip using a displacement-controlled ramp function with a 600 nm/s loading and unloading rate, a 3000-nm peak displacement with a holding period(More)
Both pulsed- and square-wave, low-intensity ultrasound (US) signals have been reported to impact chondrocyte function and biosynthetic activity. In this study, a low-intensity diffuse ultrasound (LIDUS) signal at 5.0 MHz (0.14 mW/cm(2)) was employed to stimulate bovine chondrocytes seeded in three-dimensional (3D) chitosan-based matrices. While the duration(More)
Turgor pressure in plant cells is involved in many important processes. Stable and normal turgor pressure is required for healthy growth of a plant, and changes in turgor pressure are indicative of changes taking place within the plant tissue. The ability to quantify the turgor pressure of plant cells in vivo would provide opportunities to understand better(More)
In this paper, we report on our study of stress-induced effects on thickness vibrations of a langasite plate. The plate is assumed to be doubly rotated, specified by angles phi and theta. The stresses are assumed to be uniform and planar. The first-order perturbation integral as developed by Tiersten for frequency shifts in resonators is used. The(More)