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Postmenopausal osteoporosis in women is characterized by an increase in bone fragility and risk of fracture. In addition to transmenopausal decline in three-dimensional trabecular bone architecture, changes in intrinsic material properties (local stiffness, damping, and hardness) may contribute to increased bone fragility. In this study, nanoindentation was(More)
Chondrocytes, the cellular component of the articular cartilage, have long been recognized as strain-sensitive cells, and have the ability to sense mechanical stimulation through surface receptors and intracellular signaling pathways. This strain-induced biological response of chondrocytes has been exploited to facilitate chondrocyte culture in in vitro(More)
The atomic force microscope (AFM) can provide qualitative information by numerous imaging modes, but it can also provide quantitative information when calibrated cantilevers are used. In this article a new technique is demonstrated to calibrate AFM cantilevers using a reference piezolever. Experiments are performed on 13 different commercially available(More)
Plant development results from controlled cell divisions, structural modifications, and reorganizations of the cell wall. Thereby, regulation of cell wall behaviour takes place at multiple length scales involving compositional and architectural aspects in addition to various developmental and/or environmental factors. The physical properties of the primary(More)
Both pulsed- and square-wave, low-intensity ultrasound (US) signals have been reported to impact chondrocyte function and biosynthetic activity. In this study, a low-intensity diffuse ultrasound (LIDUS) signal at 5.0 MHz (0.14 mW/cm(2)) was employed to stimulate bovine chondrocytes seeded in three-dimensional (3D) chitosan-based matrices. While the duration(More)
The need for tissue-engineered constructs as replacement tissue continues to grow as the average age of the world's population increases. However, additional research is required before the efficient production of laboratory-created tissue can be realized. The multitude of parameters that affect cell growth and proliferation is particularly daunting(More)
Radiative transfer and multiple scattering of diffuse ultrasound" (1994). Faculty Publications from the Department of Engineering Mechanics. Paper 6. A model is presented for the mtltiply scattered incoherent field in a continuous polycrystalline elastic medium. Unlike a previous, development based upon energy conservation considerations [J.] for a medium(More)
Diffuse ultrasonic backscatter measurements have been especially useful for extracting microstructural information and for detecting flaws in materials. Accurate interpretation of experimental data requires robust scattering models. Quantitative ultrasonic scattering models include components of transducer beam patterns as well as microstructural scattering(More)