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Many cognitive theories of semantic organization stem from reports of patients with selective, category-specific deficits for particular classes of objects (e.g., fruit). The anatomical assumptions underlying the competing claims can be evaluated with functional neuroimaging but the findings to date have been inconsistent and insignificant when standard(More)
Semantic retrieval consistently activates left inferior frontal regions, yet lesions to these areas do not typically result in semantic deficits. This discrepancy has led to the hypothesis that left prefrontal areas are primarily involved in executive processes while semantic information is retrieved from temporal cortices. We investigated semantic(More)
There is growing evidence from functional imaging studies that distinct regions in the fusiform gyri are differentially sensitive to object category. In this paper, we investigate how the areas that are more sensitive to animals than tools respond to other visual and semantic variables. We illustrate that (1) category effects in the fusiform areas are(More)
This fMRI study examined motion-sensitive responses in human area V5 as a function of stimulus speed. Consistent with electrophysiological findings, we observed optimal responses at intermediate speeds of around 7 degrees/s to 30 degrees/s. The results are consistent with a nonlinear (inverted "U") dependency on speed that was also observed in V3a. V1(More)
This paper presents a nonlinear principal component analysis (PCA) that identifies underlying sources causing the expression of spatial modes or patterns of activity in neuroimaging time-series. The critical aspect of this technique is that, in relation to conventional PCA, the sources can interact to produce (second-order) spatial modes that represent the(More)
Social and hormonal correlates of femoral gland productivity were investigated in groups of adult and juvenile green iguanas (Iguana iguana) over 12 months. Femoral gland productivity, pore size, and the percentage of lipids in the secretions were correlated with plasma testosterone (T) levels in dominant, although not in subordinate, adult males. Secretory(More)
The ability to explore cell signalling and cell-to-cell communication is essential for understanding cell biology and developing effective therapeutics. However, it is not yet possible to monitor the interaction of cells with their environments in real time. Here, we show that a fluorescent sensor attached to a cell membrane can detect signalling molecules(More)
In this work, we present a nonlinear principal component analysis (PCA) that identifies underlying sources causing the expression of spatial modes or patterns of activity in neuroimaging time series where these sources can interact to produce second-order modes. This nonlinear PCA uses a neural network architecture that embodies a specific form for the(More)
Male Leiocephalus carinatus exhibited five types of aggressive displays, two of which were used to quantify aggression in paired encounters. After the dominant and subordinate lizard were identified, the area over parietal eye/pineal gland of the latter was shielded. This resulted in the subordinate lizard selecting higher body temperatures, exhibiting more(More)
Capture and isolation of flowing cells and particulates from body fluids has enormous implications in diagnosis, monitoring, and drug testing, yet monovalent adhesion molecules used for this purpose result in inefficient cell capture and difficulty in retrieving the captured cells. Inspired by marine creatures that present long tentacles containing multiple(More)