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Interference resolution is improved for stimuli presented in contexts (e.g., locations) associated with frequent conflict. This phenomenon, the context-specific proportion congruent (CSPC) effect, has challenged the traditional juxtaposition of "automatic" and "controlled" processing because it suggests that contextual cues can prime top-down control(More)
Error monitoring by the posterior medial frontal cortex (pMFC) has been linked to post-error behavioral adaptation effects and cognitive control dynamics in lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC). It remains unknown, however, whether control adjustments following errors produce post-error behavioral adjustments (PEBAs) by inhibiting inappropriate responses or(More)
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a neuropeptide that occurs in multiple structural forms among vertebrate species. Bony fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals express different forms of GnRH in the forebrain and endocrine regions of the hypothalamus which regulate the release of reproductive gonadotropins from the pituitary. In contrast,(More)
Cognitive models have long distinguished between "automatic" associative processes that can be triggered in a bottom-up fashion, and "controlled" processes, where internal goals guide information processing in a deliberate, top-down manner. However, recent behavioral studies have cast doubt on the validity of this dichotomy, showing that implicit contextual(More)
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) immunoreactive cells and fibers were revealed in olfactory regions, the ventral forebrain, and in the midbrain of the musk shrew (Suncus murinus). Immunoreactive neurons in olfactory and telencephalic areas were specific for the mammalian form of GnRH. Cell bodies in the midbrain, however, cross-reacted with an antibody(More)
Cognitive control requires a fine balance between stability, the protection of an on-going task-set, and flexibility, the ability to update a task-set in line with changing contingencies. It is thought that emotional processing modulates this balance, but results have been equivocal regarding the direction of this modulation. Here, we tested the hypothesis(More)
In most vertebrate species two forms of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) are present in the brain, and their differential distribution suggests they have different functional roles. The regional distribution and relative concentrations of GnRH molecular forms in the brain of adult clawed toad (Xenopus laevis) were determined using high performance(More)
The etiology of anorexia nervosa (AN) is poorly understood. Results from functional brain imaging studies investigating the neural profile of AN using cognitive and emotional task paradigms are difficult to reconcile. Task-related imaging studies often require a high level of compliance and can only partially explore the distributed nature and complexity of(More)
BACKGROUND Individuals with anorexia nervosa are thought to exert excessive self-control to inhibit primary drives. METHODS This study used functional MRI (fMRI) to interrogate interactions between the neural correlates of cognitive control and motivational processes in the brain reward system during the anticipation of monetary reward and reward-related(More)