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Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) strains are members of the normal human nasopharyngeal flora, as well as frequent opportunistic pathogens of both the upper and lower respiratory tracts. Recently, it has been shown that NTHI can form biofilms both in vitro and in vivo. NTHI strains within in vitro-formed biofilms differentially express both(More)
Haemophilus influenzae is considered a nonmotile organism that expresses neither flagella nor type IV pili, although H. influenzae strain Rd possesses a cryptic pilus locus. We demonstrate here that the homologous gene cluster pilABCD in an otitis media isolate of nontypeable H. influenzae strain 86-028NP encodes a surface appendage that is highly similar,(More)
Aberrant crypts were identified for the first time in whole-mount preparations of normal-appearing human colonic mucosa after staining with methylene blue. The foci of aberrant crypts varied from single altered glands to plaques of greater than 30 crypts. The mean proportion of colonic mucosa altered and the number of foci with aberrant crypts per cm2 of(More)
Haemophilus influenzae has an absolute growth requirement for heme and the heme-binding lipoprotein (HbpA) and has been implicated in the utilization of this essential nutrient. We constructed an insertional mutation of hbpA in a type b and a nontypeable H. influenzae strain. In the type b strain, the hbpA mutant was impaired in utilization of heme(More)
Bacteria that cause chronic and/or recurrent diseases often rely on a biofilm lifestyle. The foundation of the biofilm structure is the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) that acts as a barrier to both effectors of the immune system and antimicrobial agents. Recent work has highlighted extracellular DNA (eDNA) as a key component common to many(More)
Despite resulting in a similar overall outcome, unlike antibodies directed against the DNABII protein, integration host factor (IHF), which induce catastrophic structural collapse of biofilms formed by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI), those directed against a recombinant soluble form of PilA [the majority subunit of Type IV pili (Tfp) produced by(More)
The extracellular polymeric substance produced by many human pathogens during biofilm formation often contains extracellular DNA (eDNA). Strands of bacterial eDNA within the biofilm matrix can occur in a lattice-like network wherein a member of the DNABII family of DNA-binding proteins is positioned at the vertex of each crossed strand. To date, treatment(More)
Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a leading causative agent of otitis media. Much of the inflammation occurring during NTHi disease is initiated by lipooligosaccharides (LOS) on the bacterial surface. Phosphorylcholine (PCho) is added to some LOS forms in a phase-variable manner, and these PCho(+) variants predominate in vivo. Thus, we asked(More)
Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) is an important pathogen in respiratory tract infections, including otitis media (OM). NTHI forms biofilms in vitro as well as in the chinchilla middle ear, suggesting that biofilm formation in vivo might play an important role in the pathogenesis and chronicity of OM. We've previously shown that SiaA, SiaB, and(More)
There is currently great interest worldwide in developing noninvasive methods for the delivery of vaccines for upper respiratory tract diseases, including middle ear infection (otitis media, OM). One such noninvasive approach believed to have great potential for the prevention of diseases of the airway is to deliver vaccines by the intranasal (i.n.) route.(More)