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Neuronal PAS domain protein 2 (NPAS2) is a transcription factor expressed primarily in the mammalian forebrain. NPAS2 is highly related in primary amino acid sequence to Clock, a transcription factor expressed in the suprachiasmatic nucleus that heterodimerizes with BMAL1 and regulates circadian rhythm. To investigate the biological role of NPAS2, we(More)
Endocrine erythropoietin (Epo), which is synthesized in the kidney or liver of adult mammals, controls erythrocyte production and is regulated by the stress-responsive transcription factor Hypoxia Inducible Factor 2 (HIF-2). We previously reported that the lysine acetyltransferase Cbp is required for HIF-2α acetylation and efficient HIF-2 dependent Epo(More)
To survive in hostile environments, organisms activate stress-responsive transcriptional regulators that coordinately increase production of protective factors. Hypoxia changes cellular metabolism and thus activates redox-sensitive as well as oxygen-dependent signal transducers. We demonstrate that Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1), a redox-sensing deacetylase, selectively(More)
Neuronal PAS domain protein 2 (NPAS2) is a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) PAS domain transcription factor expressed in multiple regions of the vertebrate brain. Targeted insertion of a beta-galactosidase reporter gene (lacZ) resulted in the production of an NPAS2-lacZ fusion protein and an altered form of NPAS2 lacking the bHLH domain. The neuroanatomical(More)
The mammalian heart has a remarkable regenerative capacity for a short period of time after birth, after which the majority of cardiomyocytes permanently exit cell cycle. We sought to determine the primary postnatal event that results in cardiomyocyte cell-cycle arrest. We hypothesized that transition to the oxygen-rich postnatal environment is the upstream(More)
Current metagenomic approaches to the study of complex microbial consortia provide a glimpse into the community metabolism and occasionally allow genomic assemblies for the most abundant organisms. However, little information is gained for the members of the community present at low frequencies, especially those representing yet-uncultured taxa, which(More)
PURPOSE To characterize the effect of HIF-2alpha haploinsufficiency on retinal neovascularization and angiogenic signaling in neonatal mice. METHODS Retinal samples were obtained from HIF-2alpha-haploinsufficient (Epas1+/-) and wild-type (Epas1+/+) neonatal mice subjected to an oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) protocol. Histologic and molecular studies(More)
Hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs) are heterodimeric transcription factors induced in many cancers where they frequently promote the expression of protumorigenic pathways. Though transcription factors are typically considered 'undruggable', the PAS-B domain of the HIF-2α subunit contains a large cavity within its hydrophobic core that offers a unique foothold(More)
Although the adult mammalian heart is incapable of meaningful functional recovery following substantial cardiomyocyte loss, it is now clear that modest cardiomyocyte turnover occurs in adult mouse and human hearts, mediated primarily by proliferation of pre-existing cardiomyocytes. However, fate mapping of these cycling cardiomyocytes has not been possible(More)