Joseph A. Califano

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Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide. To explore the genetic origins of this cancer, we used whole-exome sequencing and gene copy number analyses to study 32 primary tumors. Tumors from patients with a history of tobacco use had more mutations than did tumors from patients who did not use tobacco, and(More)
Phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) inhibitors (sildenafil, tadalafil, and vardenafil) are agents currently in clinical use for nonmalignant conditions. We report the use of PDE5 inhibitors as modulators of the antitumor immune response. In several mouse tumor models, PDE5 inhibition reverses tumor-induced immunosuppressive mechanisms and enables a measurable(More)
MicroRNAs (mirs) are small noncoding RNA molecules (~22 nucleotides) that regulate posttranscriptional gene expression. Currently, there has not been a comprehensive study of their role in primary head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). To determine the role of mirs in HNSCC, we screened for altered microRNA expression in HNSCC primary tissue and(More)
A genetic progression model of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma has not yet been elucidated, and the genetic basis for "field cancerization" of the aerodigestive tract has also remained obscure. Eighty-seven lesions of the head and neck, including preinvasive lesions and benign lesions associated with carcinogen exposure, were tested using(More)
Despite recent advances in the diagnosis and treatment of head and neck cancer, there has been little evidence of improvement in 5-year survival rates over the last few decades. To determine more accurate trends in site-specific outcomes as opposed to a more general overview of head and neck cancer patients, we analyzed the site-specific data collected in(More)
CONTEXT Use of BRAF mutation in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) has the potential to improve risk stratification of this cancer. OBJECTIVE The objective of the study was to investigate the prognostic value of BRAF mutation in patients with PTC. DESIGN, SETTING, AND SUBJECTS In a multicenter study of 219 PTC patients, data on their clinicopathological(More)
BACKGROUND The abrogation of function of the tumor-suppressor protein p53 as a result of mutation of its gene, TP53, is one of the most common genetic alterations in cancer cells. We evaluated TP53 mutations and survival in patients with squamous-cell carcinoma of the head and neck. METHODS A total of 560 patients with squamous-cell carcinoma of the head(More)
OBJECTIVE To update the guidelines for neck dissection terminology, as previously recommended by the American Head and Neck Society. PARTICIPANTS Committee for Neck Dissection Classification, American Head and Neck Society; representation from the Committee for Head and Neck Surgery and Oncology, American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery(More)
The tumor suppressor gene p16 (CDKN2/MTS-1/INK4A) can be inactivated by multiple genetic mechanisms. We analyzed 29 invasive primary head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) for p16 inactivation with immunohistochemistry utilizing a new monoclonal antibody (mAb), DCS-50. p16 staining of the primary lesions was correlated with genetic analysis(More)
Identification of tumor suppressor genes (TSG) silenced by methylation uncovers mechanisms of tumorigenesis and identifies new epigenetic tumor markers for early cancer detection. Both nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and esophageal carcinoma are major tumors in Southern China and Southeast Asia. Through expression subtraction of NPC, we identified Deleted in(More)