Joseph A. Buckwalter

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Although the neurobiology of autism has been studied for more than two decades, the majority of these studies have examined brain structure 10, 20, or more years after the onset of clinical symptoms. The pathological biology that causes autism remains unknown, but its signature is likely to be most evident during the first years of life when clinical(More)
The posterior cingulate and the medial parietal cortices constitute an ensemble known as the posteromedial cortex (PMC), which consists of Brodmann areas 23, 29, 30, 31, and 7m. To understand the neural relationship of the PMC with the rest of the brain, we injected its component areas with four different anterograde and retrograde tracers in the cynomolgus(More)
Few morphological differences have been identified so far that distinguish the human brain from the brains of our closest relatives, the apes. Comparative analyses of the spatial organization of cortical neurons, including minicolumns, can aid our understanding of the functionally relevant aspects of microcircuitry. We measured horizontal spacing distance(More)
Cell minicolumns were shown to be narrower in frontal regions in brains of autistic patients compared with controls. This was not found in primary visual cortex. Within the frontal cortex, dorsal and orbital regions displayed the greatest differences while the mesial region showed the least change. We also found that minicolumns in the brain of a 3-year-old(More)
We measured the in situ biomechanical properties of knee joint cartilage from five species (bovine, canine, human, monkey, and rabbit) to examine the biomechanical relevance of animal models of human knee joint injuries and osteoarthritis. In situ biphasic creep indentation experiments were performed to simultaneously determine all three intrinsic material(More)
The medial parietal, posterior cingulate, and retrosplenial cortices collectively constitute a region of cortex referred to as the posteromedial cortices (PMC). In an effort to shed light on the neuroanatomical organization of the PMC, we undertook a study to identify and analyze the thalamocortical connections of these cortices. Retrograde tracer(More)
The incidence of osteoarthritis (OA), the disease characterized by joint pain and loss of joint form and function due to articular cartilage degeneration, is directly correlated with age. The strong association between age and increasing incidence of osteoarthritis (OA) marks OA as an age related disease. Yet, like many other age related diseases, OA is not(More)
The role of the primate retrosplenial cortex (RSC) in memory processing and spatial navigation has been well established. Recently, processing emotionally salient information has been attributed to the RSC as well. Little anatomical data, however, exist linking the RSC with known emotional processing centers within the brain. The amygdala has been(More)
In human and nonhuman primates, the amygdala is known to play critical roles in emotional and social behavior. Anatomically, individual amygdaloid nuclei are connected with many neural systems that are either differentially expanded or conserved over the course of primate evolution. To address amygdala evolution in humans and our closest living relatives,(More)
Damaged articular cartilage rarely heals or regenerates in middle-aged and elderly adults, suggesting that the chondrogenic potential of mesenchymal stem cells declines with age. To test this hypothesis, we measured the responses of rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) to chondrogenic induction in vitro. BMSCs from immature rats (1 week(More)