Joseph A. Buckwalter

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Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis, affecting millions of people in the United States. It is a complex disease whose etiology bridges biomechanics and biochemistry. Evidence is growing for the role of systemic factors (such as genetics, dietary intake, estrogen use, and bone density) and of local biomechanical factors (such as muscle(More)
The unique biologic and mechanical properties of articular cartilage depend on the design of the tissue and the interactions between the chondrocytes and the matrix that maintain the tissue. Chondrocytes form the macromolecular framework of the tissue matrix from three classes of molecules: collagens, proteoglycans, and noncollagenous proteins. Type II, IX,(More)
We measured the in situ biomechanical properties of knee joint cartilage from five species (bovine, canine, human, monkey, and rabbit) to examine the biomechanical relevance of animal models of human knee joint injuries and osteoarthritis. In situ biphasic creep indentation experiments were performed to simultaneously determine all three intrinsic material(More)
The degeneration of articular cartilage as part of the clinical syndrome of osteoarthritis is one of the most common causes of pain and disability in middle-aged and older people. The strong correlation between increasing age and the prevalence of osteoarthritis, and recent evidence of important age-related changes in the function of chondrocytes, suggest(More)
The acute and repetitive impact and torsional joint loading that occurs during participation in sports can damage articular surfaces causing pain, joint dysfunction, and effusions. In some instances, this articular surface damage leads to progressive joint degeneration. Three classes of chondral and osteochondral injuries can be identified based on the type(More)
Articular cartilage, which makes possible the painless, low-friction movement of synovial joints, consists of a sparsely distributed population of highly specialized cells called chondrocytes that are embedded within a matrix and provide articular cartilage with remarkable mechanical properties. Chondrocytes form the tissue matrix macromolecular framework(More)
Biochemical and biophysical studies have shown that the composition and sedimentation velocity of cartilage proteoglycans change with age, but these investigations cannot demonstrate the alterations in molecular structure responsible for these changes. Development of quantitative electron microscopic methods has made it possible to define the age-related(More)