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1. The reaction time to a visual stimulus shortens significantly when an unexpected acoustic startle is delivered together with the 'go' signal in healthy human subjects. In this paper we have investigated the physiological mechanisms underlying this effect. If the commands for the startle and the voluntary reaction were superimposed at some level in the(More)
We applied trains of focal, rapid-rate transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to the motor cortex of 14 healthy volunteers with recording of the EMG from the contralateral abductor pollicis brevis, extensor carpi radialis, biceps brachii and deltoid muscles. Modulation of the amplitude of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) produced in the target muscle during(More)
We studied the changes in motor pathway excitability induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex, using paired stimuli (conditioning and test stimulus) and varying interstimulus interval (ISI). The effects induced depended on the stimulus intensity. At a low intensity, there was inhibition of the response to the test stimulus at ISIs of(More)
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is an established neurophysiological tool to examine the integrity of the fast-conducting corticomotor pathways in a wide range of diseases associated with motor dysfunction. This includes but is not limited to patients with multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, stroke, movement disorders, disorders(More)
In a simple reaction time (RT) paradigm, magnetic stimulation of different intensities was delivered over different scalp positions and at variable delays before (negative) or after (positive) the go-signal. Magnetic stimulation shortened RT to different go-signals (auditory, visual and somatosensory stimuli) by approximately 30 ms when delivered over the(More)
There is evidence from animal experiments that the cerebellum and its associated brainstem circuitry are involved in the acquisition of the conditioned response. In order to obtain evidence for their involvement in humans, we studied classical delay conditioning, using the eye-blink conditioned response, in five patients with pure cerebellar cortical(More)
Fatigue of voluntary muscular effort is a complex and multifaceted phenomenon. Fatigue of peripheral nervous system components, including the contractile apparatus and the neuromuscular junction, has been well studied. Central nervous system components also fatigue, but studies have lagged for want of objective methods. Transcranial magnetic stimulation is(More)
Blink reflexes are usually considered the most representative and consistent response of the auditory startle reaction (ASR), and they are often the only response evaluated in human psychophysiological studies. However, auditory stimuli also induce an auditory blink reflex (ABR), the physiological characteristics and brainstem circuitry of which may be(More)
We studied the effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the motor cortex on simple reaction time (RT) in 10 patients with Parkinson's disease compared with 10 age-matched normal controls. The subjects flexed their right elbow rapidly in response to a visual go-signal. In random trials, TMS was applied to the left motor cortex at varying delays(More)
To review the literature on primary dystonia and dystonia plus and to provide evidence-based recommendations. Primary dystonia and dystonia plus are chronic and often disabling conditions with a widespread spectrum mainly in young people. Computerized MEDLINE and EMBASE literature reviews (1966-1967 February 2005) were conducted. The Cochrane Library was(More)