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and Jose Garcia-Montalvo and two annonymous refrees for many valuable comments. Abstract This paper analyzes the effect of ethnic division on civil war and the role of political systems in preventing these conflicts. First we show the importance of religious polarization and animist diversity in explaining the incidence of ethnic civil war. We find that(More)
Signals transduced by the multifunctional calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CaMKs), have been suggested to regulate the development of hypertrophy. We address the role of the three multifunctional CaMKs, CaMK I, II, and IV, in this process using transverse aortic constriction (TAC) to induce cardiac hypertrophy in mice. We find a 33% increase in(More)
Although isoforms of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) have been implicated in the regulation of gene expression in cultured cells, this issue has yet to be addressed in vivo. We report that the overexpression of calmodulin in ventricular myocytes of transgenic mice results in an increase in the Ca2+/calmodulin-independent activity of(More)
Numerous hormones, growth factors and physiological processes cause a rise in cytosolic Ca2+, which is translated into meaningful cellular responses by interacting with a large number of Ca2(+)-binding proteins. The Ca2(+)-binding protein that is most pervasive in mediating these responses is calmodulin (CaM), which acts as a primary receptor for Ca2+ in(More)
The cell signaling pathways that control ventricular cardiomyocyte proliferation during development are poorly understood. Here we show that increasing levels of the ubiquitous Ca(2+) receptor calmodulin (CaM) can regulate cardiomyocyte proliferation in vivo. Targeted overexpression of calmodulin in the heart during embryonic development leads to a 37% or a(More)
This article examines four problems with past evaluations of presidential election forecasting and suggests one aspect of the models that could be improved. Past criticism has had problems with establishing an overall appraisal of the forecasting equations, in assessing the accuracy of both the forecasting models and their forecasts of individual election(More)
Il existait au Moyen-âge des pensées profondes et raffinées du choix social, surtout chez Ramon Llull, (ca 1232-1316) et Nicolaus Krebs, surnommé ‘de Cusa’ ou ‘Cusanus’ (1401-64). Deux règles fondamentales du choix social moderne, c'est-à-dire celles de Copeland (généralisation de la règle de Condorcet) et de Borda, ont été proposées par Llull et Cusanus(More)