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In humans, sexual differentiation of the external genitalia is established at 7-12 weeks post conception (wpc). During this period, maintaining the appropriate intrauterine hormone environment is critical. In contrast to other species, this regulation extends to the human fetal adrenal cortex, as evidenced by the virilization that is associated with various(More)
Boldenone is one of the most frequently detected anabolic androgenic steroids in doping control analysis. Boldenone misuse is commonly detected by the identification of the active drug and its main metabolite, 5β-androst-1-en-17β-ol-3-one (BM1), by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), after previous hydrolysis with β-glucuronidase enzymes,(More)
Mycoplasma pneumoniae, a threatening pathogen with a minimal genome, is a model organism for bacterial systems biology for which substantial experimental information is available. With the goal of understanding the complex interactions underlying its metabolism, we analyzed and characterized the metabolic network of M. pneumoniae in great detail,(More)
Three different surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra are recorded for aspartic acid on H(2)O silver sols under different concentrations and pH values. The analysis of the results shows that it interacts with the metal surface in its dianionic form in two different ways, depending on the pH and concentration. Moreover, in some cases the fumarate(More)
The local generation of active glucocorticoid by NADPH-dependent, 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1) oxoreductase activity, has emerged as an important factor in regulating hepatic glucose output and visceral adiposity. We have proposed that this NADPH is generated within the endoplasmic reticulum by the enzyme hexose-6-phosphate(More)
In a large multi-center trial involving prenatal screening for Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS), we evaluated maternal urine and serum steroid analysis as a non-invasive diagnostic alternative to amniotic fluid sterol analysis. Candidate steroid ratios included: 7-dehydropregnanetriol/pregnanetriol (7-PT/PT), 8-dehydropregnanetriol/PT (8-PT/PT), the sum of(More)
Antley-Bixler syndrome (ABS, MIM 207410) is a skeletal abnormality syndrome primarily affecting head and limbs. Little is known of the origin of the condition but inactivating mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR2) has been found in some patients. Genital ambiguity is seen occasionally in this condition, suggesting possible disordered(More)
Following up on our previous findings that the skin possesses steroidogenic activity from progesterone, we now show widespread cutaneous expression of the full cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (P450scc) system required for the intracellular catalytic production of pregnenolone, i.e. the genes and proteins for P450scc enzyme, adrenodoxin, adrenodoxin(More)
In humans, conjugation with glucuronic acid is the most important phase II metabolic reaction of steroidal compounds. Glucuronoconjugated metabolites have been conventionally studied by using β-glucuronidase enzymes to release the phase I metabolites. It is well-known that hydrolysis with β-glucuronidase presents some limitations that may result in the(More)
BACKGROUND Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) is a rare hereditary disorder of cholesterol metabolism. We examine the feasibility of identifying SLOS as a part of a routine prenatal screening and evaluate diagnostic testing in maternal urine (or serum), in addition to amniotic fluid. METHODS Our SLOS risk algorithm utilized three Down syndrome screening(More)