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BACKGROUND Dysregulated hedgehog signaling is the pivotal molecular abnormality underlying basal-cell carcinomas. Vismodegib is a new orally administered hedgehog-pathway inhibitor that produces objective responses in locally advanced and metastatic basal-cell carcinomas. METHODS We tested the anti-basal-cell carcinoma efficacy of vismodegib in a(More)
Higher rates of alcohol use have been reported in HIV+ individuals compared to the general population. Both heavy alcohol use and HIV infection are associated with increased risk of neuropsychological (NP) impairment. We examined effects of heavy active alcohol use and HIV on NP functioning in a large sample of community-residing HIV+ individuals and HIV-(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the effects of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) on central nervous system (CNS) function in patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) who have suppressed viral loads. METHODS Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 15 virally suppressed HIV patients and 15 age-, sex-, and education-matched controls while they(More)
Sporadic human basal cell carcinomas (BCC) are generally well managed with current surgical modalities. However, in the subset of high-risk patients predisposed to developing large numbers of BCCs, there is an unmet need for effective, low-morbidity chemoprevention. This population includes fair-skinned patients with extensive sun exposure and those with(More)
IMPORTANCE Keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs) of the jaw affect more than 65% of patients with basal cell nevus syndrome (BCNS). Surgery frequently causes facial disfigurement and is not always curative. Most BCNS-related and some sporadic KCOTs have malignant activation of the Hedgehog signaling pathway. OBSERVATIONS We examined the effect of(More)
BACKGROUND Aberrant hedgehog signalling underlies the development of basal-cell carcinomas. We previously reported the interim analysis of a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial in patients with the basal-cell nevus (Gorlin) syndrome indicating that the smoothened inhibitor vismodegib reduces basal-cell carcinoma tumour(More)
The contingent negative variation, an event-related potential related to neural activity in the frontal lobe and basal ganglia, neuropsychological tests and structural MRI were used to examine CNS function and structure in HIV-positive patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. Relative to controls, HIV patients had smaller thalamic volume and reduced late(More)
Importance Patients with basal cell nevus syndrome (BCNS) have a greater risk of developing numerous basal cell carcinomas (BCCs). Risk factors influencing the wide variation in tumor burden are poorly understood. Objective To describe the burden of BCCs in patients with BCNS in the United States and identify potential risk factors for BCCs. Design,(More)
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