Josefin Koehn

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Insufficient HIV drug levels in lymph nodes have been linked to viral persistence. To overcome lymphatic drug insufficiency, we developed and evaluated in primates a lipid-drug nanoparticle containing lopinavir, ritonavir, and tenofovir. These nanoparticles produced over 50-fold higher intracellular lopinavir, ritonavir and tenofovir concentrations in lymph(More)
For HIV infection, anti-HIV drug combinations are typically used as highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), intended to maximize viral suppression. Three drugs used frequently in combination are the protease inhibitors lopinavir and ritonavir and the nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor tenofovir. We have successfully developed a simple,(More)
OBJECTIVE The aim of the present study was to determine whether a combination of anti-HIV drugs - tenofovir (TFV), lopinavir (LPV) and ritonavir (RTV) - in a lipid-stabilized nanosuspension (called TLC-ART101) could enhance and sustain intracellular drug levels and exposures in lymph node and blood cells above those in plasma. DESIGN Four macaques were(More)
Although oral combination antiretroviral therapy effectively clears plasma HIV, patients on oral drugs exhibit much lower drug concentrations in lymph nodes than blood. This drug insufficiency is linked to residual HIV in cells of lymph nodes. While nanoformulations improve drug solubility, safety and delivery, most HIV nanoformulations are intended to(More)
Medication adherence and insufficient drug levels are central to HIV/AIDS disease progression. Recently, Fletcher et al. confirmed that HIV patients on oral antiretroviral therapy had lower intracellular drug concentrations in lymph nodes than in blood. For instance, in the same patient, multiple lymph node drug concentrations were as much as 99 % lower(More)
In the treatment of HIV infection, a combination of anti-HIV drugs is commonly used in highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). One such combination recommended for clinical therapy consists of the two HIV protease inhibitors atazanavir and ritonavir and the HIV nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor tenofovir. The detection of plasma and cell drug(More)
HIV patients on combination oral drug therapy experience insufficient drug levels in lymph nodes, which is linked to viral persistence. Following success in enhancing lymph node drug levels and extending plasma residence time of indinavir formulated in lipid nanoparticles, we developed multidrug anti-HIV lipid nanoparticles (anti-HIV LNPs) containing(More)
We evaluated two human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitors, atazanavir (ATV) and darunavir (DRV), for pH-dependent solubility, lipid binding, and drug release from lipid nanoparticles (LNPs). Both ATV and DRV incorporated into LNPs composed of pegylated and non-pegylated phospholipids with nearly 100% efficiency, but only ATV-LNPs formed stable(More)
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