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This study investigates the correlation between the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and auditory damage in noise-induced hearing loss. The noise exposure (4-kHz octave band, 115 dB SPL, 5 h) created permanent threshold shifts at frequencies from 2 to 20 kHz. The lipid peroxidation product, 8-isoprostane, was determined biochemically and(More)
Between March 1981 and June 1995, a neurological disease characterized histologically by spongiform encephalopathy was diagnosed in 49 free-ranging cervids from northcentral Colorado (USA). Mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) were the primary species affected and accounted for 41 (84%) of the 49 cases, but six Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) and two(More)
Bacteriophage typing (BT) (World Health Organization method) has been used at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for over 30 years to type isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. Since studies have shown that BT patterns have poor reproducibility and because BT fails to type a high percentage (15 to 20%) of isolates, the Centers for Disease Control(More)
Time lapse video recordings of cultured adult human and guinea pig spiral ganglion (hSG and gpSG) show that mitogen responsive progenitor/stem cells develop in the form of spheres that proliferate and differentiate into mature neurons and glia cells. Neurospheres, cultured with EGF and bFGF showed expression of nestin and incorporation of(More)
For patients with profound hearing loss, cochlear implants have become the treatment of choice. These devices provide auditory information through direct electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve. Prosthesis function depends on survival and electrical excitability of the cochlear neurons. Degeneration of the auditory nerve occurs after lesions of its(More)
Studies in rats and guinea pigs indicate that local changes in inhibitory transmitters may underlie deafness-induced plastic changes in electrophysiological responsiveness of cells of the mature central auditory system. Following 21 days of bilateral deafness there is an increase in evoked Fos-immunoreactive neurones in the central nucleus of the inferior(More)
Reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species (ROS, RNS) formed in the inner ear in response to high-intensity noise are thought to play an important role in noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). ROS appear rapidly and transiently in the inner ear during and following noise exposure, while hair cell loss progresses over time stabilizing two or more weeks after(More)
Differentiation of the pluripotent neuroepithelium into neurons and glia is accomplished by the interaction of growth factors and cell-type restricted transcription factors. One approach to obtaining a particular neuronal phenotype is by recapitulating the expression of these factors in embryonic stem (ES) cells. Toward the eventual goal of auditory nerve(More)
This study was undertaken to examine the effects of chronic high-rate stimulation on the eighth nerve and cochlea. Fifty-four male pigmented guinea pigs were deafened and implanted with single ball electrodes in scala tympani. Four groups of animals received chronic electrical stimulation at a level of 5 microCol/cm2/ph for 1000 h as follows: Group A: 1000(More)
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are involved in sensory cell and neural death in the peripheral nervous system, including damage induced by noise trauma. Antioxidant administration prior to or concomitant with noise exposure can prevent auditory deficits, but the efficacy of a delayed treatment is not known. We have(More)