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Based on empirical evidence from the literature we propose that, in nature, phenotypic plasticity in plants is usually expressed at a subindividual level. While reaction norms (i.e. the type and the degree of plant responses to environmental variation) are a property of genotypes, they are expressed at the level of modular subunits in most plants. We thus(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS While within-species competition for light is generally found to be asymmetric - larger plants absorbing more than proportional amounts of light - between-species competition tends to be more symmetric. Here, the light capture was analysed in a 5-year-old competition experiment that started with ten genotypes of the clonal plant(More)
Plant defense theory suggests that inducible resistance has evolved to reduce the costs of constitutive defense expression. To assess the functional and potentially adaptive value of induced resistance it is necessary to quantify the costs and benefits associated with this plastic response. The ecological and evolutionary viability of induced defenses(More)
Plant pathogens and insect herbivores are prone to share hosts under natural conditions. Consequently, pathogen-induced changes in the host plant can affect herbivory, and vice versa. Even though plant viruses are ubiquitous in the field, little is known about plant-mediated interactions between viruses and non-vectoring herbivores. We investigated the(More)
In hardwood forests, clonal understory trees often develop patches of ramets that are interconnected via root systems. The patches are often partially disturbed by litter falling from the forest canopy, and patterns of damage can vary in size and the number of directly affected ramets. To test the effects of different types of disturbance on recovery and(More)
Game theoretical models predict that plant competition for light leads to reduced productivity of vegetation stands through selection for traits that maximize carbon gains of individuals. Using empirical results from a 5-year competition experiment with 10 genotypes of the clonal plant Potentilla reptans, we tested this prediction by analyzing the effects(More)
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