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Excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) were recorded extracellularly from large muscle fibers by means of ‘patch clamp’ electrodes. Compared to usual extracellular recordings, better signal/noise ratio and temporal stability were achieved. In the range of extracellular calcium concentrations [Ca]0 between 2.7 and 13.5 mmol/l (normal), the average(More)
We studied the kinetics of the unedited version of rat GluR6 glutamate (glu) receptor channels, GluR6Q, in outside-out patches using a system for submillisecond solution exchange. Half-maximum activation of the channels was reached with approximately 0.5 microM glu. The maximum slope of the double-logarithmic plot of the peak current versus glu was(More)
A liquid filament switch is described which can exchange the solution passing an excised outside-out patch of postsynaptic membrane within less than 1 ms. Application and washout of transmitter can be repeated at high rates. Results of such rapid activations by glutamate are shown for the excitatory and the inhibitory channel of crayfish muscle. The(More)
In outside-out patches of mouse-muscle membrane, embryonic-like channels were activated by pulses of acetylcholine (ACh). On increasing the ACh concentration, the rate of desensitization, 1/tau d, increased linearly with the peak open probability, indicating desensitization from the open state. Desensitization had only one time constant tau d at each ACh(More)
It has been suggested that depolarization per se can control neurotransmitter release, in addition to its role in promoting Ca2+ influx. The 'Ca2+ hypothesis' has provided an essential framework for understanding how Ca2+ entry and accumulation in nerve terminals controls transmitter release. Yet, increases in intracellular Ca2+ levels alone cannot account(More)
  • Josef Dudel
  • Naunyn-Schmiedebergs Archiv für experimentelle…
  • 1965
The effect of 5-hydroxy-tryptamine (5 HT) on synaptic transmission in crayfish muscle was analysed by recording extracellularly potential changes at single synapses. After stimulation of the motor nerve fiber an excitatory postsynaptic potential (e.p.s.p.) of the muscle fiber is measured. In presence of 5 HT (10−6 g/ml) the e.p.s.p. increases considerably.(More)
We have previously suggested that presynaptic M(2)-muscarinic receptors (M(2)R) are involved in the control of the time course of evoked acetylcholine release in the frog neuromuscular junction. The availability of knockout mice lacking functional M(2)R (M(2)-KO) enabled us to address this issue in a more direct way. Using the phrenic diaphragm preparation,(More)
In the present study, the activation of rat recombinant alpha(1)beta(2)gamma(2S) gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic Cl(-) channel expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells by ivermectin was investigated. Maximal activation of the channel occurred with GABA concentrations of 10 mM or 20 microM ivermectin both achieving about the same current(More)