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A total of 192 embalmed cadavers were examined in order to present a detailed study of arterial variations in the upper limb and a meta-analysis of them. The variable terminology previously used was unified into a homogenous and complete classification, with 12 categories covering all the previously reported variant patterns of the arm and forearm.
A total of 112 human embryos (224 upper limbs) between stages 12 and 23 of development were examined. It was observed that formation of the arterial system in the upper limb takes place as a dual process. An initial capillary plexus appears from the dorsal aorta during stage 12 and develops at the same rate as the limb. At stage 13, the capillary plexus(More)
This study confirms that the median artery may persist in adult life in 2 different patterns, palmar and antebrachial, based on their vascular territory. The palmar type, which represents the embryonic pattern, is large, long and reaches the palm. The antebrachial type,which represents a partial regression of the embryonic artery is slender, short, and(More)
Knowledge of variations of the circumflex femoral arteries is important when undertaking clinical procedures within the femoral region and in hip joint replacement. Since the 19th century, many different patterns have been proposed to classify their origins. This work studied a statistically reliable sample, the lower limbs of 221 embalmed human cadavers(More)
Variations in connections between the musculocutaneous and median nerves in the arm are not as uncommon as was once thought. This opinion led us to perform a study in 138 cadavers (66 male, 72 female). These variations were seen in 64 cadavers (46.4%), 9 bilaterally and 55 unilaterally (26 right and 29 left); in total, therefore, variations were observed in(More)
Two cases with anomalous fascicles in abductor digiti minimi, noted in the course of dissecting 62 adult postmortem forearms, are described. Both fascicles arose from the flexor retinaculum and the antebrachial fascia; one was inserted into abductor digiti minimi and the other on the proximal phalanx of the 5th finger. The anomalous muscles crossed the(More)
The acetabular point was analysed by studying human pelvic bones from 326 individuals ranging from newborns to age 97 y. The bones were categorised into 3 groups according to the degree of fusion for the 3 elements of the pelvis: nonfused (59), semifused (5) and fused (262). The acetabular point in immature pelvic bones is clearly represented by the point(More)
Twenty-three cases with variations in the brachio-antebrachial arterial pattern of the human upper limb are reported. According to the artery which showed a variation, 4 groups were recognised: (1) isolated persistence of the median artery; (2) high origin of the ulnar artery; (3) high origin of the radial artery; and (4) duplication of the brachial artery,(More)
Major variations of the principal arteries of the upper limb have long received the attention of anatomists. These variations can be summarised as the presence of 2 main arteries traversing the cubital fossa, a deep (or normal) brachial artery in coexistence with a superficial brachial, radial or ulnar artery. Anastomosis between these arterial trunks at(More)
OBJECTIVES Study and detailed description of the large connections between the normally recurrent inferior laryngeal nerve (RILN) and the sympathetic trunk (ST) because these may be mistaken for a nonrecurrent inferior laryngeal nerve (NRILN). STUDY DESIGN Morphologic study of adult human necks. METHODS The necks of 144 human, adult, embalmed cadavers(More)