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This paper deals with chain graphs under the Andersson-Madigan-Perlman (AMP) interpretation. In particular, we present a constraint based algorithm for learning an AMP chain graph a given probability distribution is faithful to. Moreover, we show that the extension of Meek's conjecture to AMP chain graphs does not hold, which compromises the development of(More)
BACKGROUND Treatment of multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is lengthy, toxic, expensive, and has generally poor outcomes. We undertook an individual patient data meta-analysis to assess the impact on outcomes of the type, number, and duration of drugs used to treat MDR-TB. METHODS AND FINDINGS Three recent systematic reviews were used to identify(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infectivity requires actin-dependent clustering of host lipid raft-associated receptors, a process that might be linked to Rho guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) activation. Rho GTPase activity can be negatively regulated by statins, a family of drugs used to treat hypercholesterolemia in man. Statins mediate inhibition(More)
OBJECTIVES To assess the impact of HIV-related immunodeficiency and antiretroviral treatment on the occurrence and evolution of abnormal Papanicolaou tests. STUDY DESIGN Cohort of 485 HIV-infected women with a known date of infection, enrolled during May 1993-April 1998 in 23 centres (gynaecology, infectious disease or STD clinics, or drug treatment(More)
BACKGROUND Individualized treatment for multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis depends upon reliable and valid drug susceptibility testing (DST) for pyrazinamide, ethambutol, and second-line tuberculosis drugs. However, the reliability of these tests is uncertain, due to unresolved methodological issues. We(More)
BACKGROUND To our knowledge, no randomized trials have evaluated whether prophylaxis against toxoplasmic encephalitis can be safely discontinued after the CD4+ T cell count increases in response to highly active antiretroviral therapy. METHODS We conducted a randomized, nonblinded, multicenter clinical trial of the discontinuation of primary or secondary(More)
BACKGROUND The unquestionable benefit of antiretroviral therapy in reducing the rate of mother-to-child transmission can be lessened by potential maternal or neonatal toxicity. OBJECTIVE To analyze obstetric and perinatal complications in a cohort of HIV-infected pregnant women and their relationship with maternal antiretroviral therapy. POPULATION One(More)
OBJECTIVE This study evaluated maintenance with lopinavir/ritonavir monotherapy vs. continuing lopinavir/ritonavir and 2 nucleosides in HIV-infected patients with suppressed HIV replication. DESIGN Randomized, controlled, open-label, multicenter, pilot clinical trial. METHODS Adult patients were eligible if they had no history of virologic failure while(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare the clinical, immunologic, and virologic outcomes of efavirenz (EFV)-based versus protease inhibitor (PI)-based highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in severely immunosuppressed HIV-1-infected patients. DESIGN Retrospective observational cohort study. METHODS Responses were analyzed according to the intent-to-treat principle(More)
BACKGROUND The incidence of anal cancer among HIV-infected patients is higher than that in other populations. Anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions are considered precursors to invasive squamous-cell carcinomas and are strongly associated to high-risk human papillomavirus infection. OBJECTIVE The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence(More)