Jose Leon-Carrion

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A review of the scientific literature on locked-in syndrome (LIS) is offered. The clinical features, diagnosis and prognosis of LIS are reviewed, and methods regarding the differential diagnosis of LIS with severe disorders of consciousness are considered. Effective treatment, physiotherapy, and methods of communication are reviewed. Although progress in(More)
BACKGROUND Some patients awaken from coma (that is, open the eyes) but remain unresponsive (that is, only showing reflex movements without response to command). This syndrome has been coined vegetative state. We here present a new name for this challenging neurological condition: unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (abbreviated UWS). DISCUSSION Many(More)
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE The goal of this consensus statement is to increase awareness among endocrinologists and physicians treating patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) of the incidence and risks of hypopituitarism among patients with TBI. RATIONALE TBI poses significant risk to the pituitary gland, leading to elevated risks of diabetes, hypopituitarism(More)
OBJECTIVE To explore the relationship between three QEEG global indexes and their association with functional outcome after neurorehabilitation in non-acute acquired brain injury (ABI) patients (traumatic brain injury and stroke). METHODS Twenty-one adult ABI patients in post-acute phase were studied. Delta-alpha ratio (DAR), Power Ratio Index (PRI) and(More)
Impaired theory of mind (ToM) reasoning is considered an underlying cause of social cognition deficits in patients with acquired brain injury (ABI). However, the literature does not agree on the severity of ToM impairment in this clinical population, nor does it coincide on the proper tools for its assessment. In this paper, we use a meta-analytic approach(More)
The present study was designed to determine how traumatic brain injury affect executive functioning, to know whether different treatments in the acute phase improve this functioning, and to check whether the severity of the neurocognitive impairment is detected by the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS). Ability for problem solving and executive functioning within(More)
Criminal behaviour and violence may be the consequence of head injuries acquired during childhood and youth (gang fights, domestic violence, small blows to the head while driving, falls and so forth). In this study, a comparison was made of the school and head injury histories of violent and non-violent prisoners. It was found that the delinquent subjects(More)
OBJECTIVE Glucocorticoid excess is commonly related to neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders, with memory impairment typically found among these disorders. The objective of this study is to offer a clinical profile of memory deficits resulting from exposure to chronic stress-level elevations of endogenous glucocorticoids in patients with Cushing's(More)
Survivors of traumatic brain injury (TBI) often suffer disorders of consciousness as a result of a breakdown in cortical connectivity. However, little is known about the neural discharges and cortical areas working in synchrony to generate consciousness in these patients. In this study, we analyzed cortical connectivity in patients with severe(More)
INTRODUCTION This study tested the hypothesis that S100β is a useful screening tool for detecting intracranial lesion (IL) in patients with a normal level of consciousness after traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS One hundred and forty-three post-TBI patients without a decrease in consciousness (GCS = 15) and with at least one neurological symptom (e.g.(More)