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BACKGROUND The two-dimensional (2D) proximal isovelocity surface area (PISA) method has known technical limitations, mainly the geometric assumptions of PISA shape required to calculate effective(More)
BACKGROUND Left atrium (LA) size assessment is clinically relevant, but the accuracy of two-dimensional echocardiographic (2D-echo) methods is limited. Three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography is an(More)
BACKGROUND The percutaneous closure of mitral paravalvular leaks has been reported in patients who are poor operative candidates. Unsuccessful percutaneous closure of leaks may be related to(More)