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Small open reading frames (smORFs) are short DNA sequences that are able to encode small peptides of less than 100 amino acids. Study of these elements has been neglected despite thousands existing in our genomes. We and others previously showed that peptides as short as 11 amino acids are translated and provide essential functions during insect(More)
Through division into segments, animal bodies can reach higher degrees of complexity and functionality during development and evolution. The segmentation mechanisms of insects and vertebrates have been seen as fundamentally different at the anatomical and molecular levels, and consequently, independently evolved. However, this conclusion was mostly based on(More)
Sequential addition of segments in the posteriorly growing end of the embryo is a developmental mechanism common to many bilaterians. However, posterior growth and patterning in most animals also entails the establishment of a 'posterior organiser' that expresses the Caudal and Wnt proteins and has been proposed to be an ancestral feature of animal(More)
The formation of signalling boundaries is one of the strategies employed by the Notch (N) pathway to give rise to two distinct signalling populations of cells. Unravelling the mechanisms involved in the regulation of these signalling boundaries is essential to understanding the role of N during development and diseases. The function of N in the segmentation(More)
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