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PicoGreen is a fluorescent probe that binds dsDNA and forms a highly luminescent complex when compared to the free dye in solution. This unique probe is widely used in DNA quantitation assays but has limited application in biophysical analysis of DNA and DNA-protein systems due to limited knowledge pertaining to its physical properties and characteristics(More)
PicoGreen (PG) is a fluorescent probe for both double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) detection and quantification based on its ability to form a luminescent complex with dsDNA as compared with the free dye in solution. To expand the sensitivity of PG detection, we have studied the spectral properties of PG, both free and in complex with DNA in solution, when the(More)
We have analyzed the binding of recombinant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 nucleocapsid protein (NC) to very short oligonucleotides by using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology. Our experiments, which were conducted at a moderate salt concentration (0.15 M NaCl), showed that NC binds more stably to runs of d(G) than to other DNA homopolymers.(More)
The Gag polyprotein of HIV-1 is essential for retroviral replication and packaging. The nucleocapsid (NC) protein is the primary region for the interaction of Gag with nucleic acids. In this study, we examine the interactions of Gag and its NC cleavage products (NCp15, NCp9 and NCp7) with nucleic acids using solution and single molecule experiments. The NC(More)
Le Châtelier's principle is the cornerstone of our understanding of chemical equilibria. When a system at equilibrium undergoes a change in concentration or thermodynamic state (i.e., temperature, pressure, etc.), La Châtelier's principle states that an equilibrium shift will occur to offset the perturbation and a new equilibrium is established. We(More)
In this paper we provide both a theoretical and experimental analysis of the sensitivity of a DNA quantitation assay using a fluorescent chromophore which non-covalently binds dsDNA. It is well-known that the range of DNA concentrations available for fluorescence quantitation depends on the concentration of the chromophore, its affinity for nucleic acids,(More)
In this study, we have investigated the fluorescence properties of SYBR Green I (SG) dye and its interaction with double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). SG/dsDNA complexes were studied using various spectroscopic techniques, including fluorescence resonance energy transfer and time-resolved fluorescence techniques. It is shown that SG quenching in the free state has(More)
A mechanical perturbation method that locally restricts conformational entropy along the protein backbone is used to identify putative allosteric sites in a series of antibody fragments. The method is based on a distance constraint model that integrates mechanical and thermodynamic viewpoints of protein structure wherein mechanical clamps that mimic(More)
The effects of somatic mutations that transform polyspecific germline (GL) antibodies to affinity mature (AM) antibodies with monospecificity are compared among three GL-AM Fab pairs. In particular, changes in conformational flexibility are assessed using a Distance Constraint Model (DCM). We have previously established that the DCM can be robustly applied(More)
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