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During the National Neurotrauma Symposium 2010, the DG Research of the European Commission and the National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NIH/NINDS) organized a workshop on comparative effectiveness research (CER) in traumatic brain injury (TBI). This workshop reviewed existing approaches to improve outcomes(More)
Increased levels of glutamate and aspartate have been detected after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) that correlate with neurological status. The NMDA receptor antagonist felbamate (FBM; 2-phenyl-1,3-propanediol dicarbamate) is an anti-epileptic drug that elicits neuroprotective effects in different experimental models of hypoxia-ischemia. The aim of this(More)
Currently, there is no definitive diagnostic test for traumatic brain injury (TBI) to help physicians determine the seriousness of injury or the extent of cellular pathology. Calpain cleaves alphaII-spectrin into breakdown products (SBDP) after TBI and ischemia. Mean levels of both ipsilateral cortex (IC) and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) SBDP at 2, 6, and 24(More)
In this study, we examined the expression and cellular localization of survivin and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) after controlled cortical impact traumatic brain injury (TBI) in rats. There was a remarkable and sustained induction of survivin mRNA and protein in the ipsilateral cortex and hippocampus of rats after TBI, peaking at five days post(More)
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) produces alphaII-spectrin breakdown products (SBDPs) that are potential biomarkers for TBI. To further understand these biomarkers, the present study examined (1) the exposure and kinetic characteristics of SBDPs in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of adults with severe TBI, and (2) the relationship between these exposure and kinetic(More)
Apolipoprotein E has been implicated in modifying neurological outcome after traumatic brain injury, although the mechanisms by which this occurs remain poorly defined. To investigate the role of endogenous apolipoprotein E following acute brain injury, noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging was performed on anesthetized mice following closed head injury.(More)
Following traumatic brain injury (TBI), the cytoskeletal protein alpha-II-spectrin is proteolyzed by calpain and caspase-3 to signature breakdown products. To determine whether alpha -II-spectrin proteolysis is a potentially reliable biomarker for TBI in humans, the present study (1) examined levels of spectrin breakdown products (SBDPs) in cerebrospinal(More)
The history of numerous failed clinical trials designed to identify therapeutic agents to assist in improving outcomes after traumatic brain injury points to the critical importance of understanding biochemical markers of injury. Such biomarkers should be readily accessible, provide information specific to the pathologic disruptions occurring in the central(More)
Proteolytic processing plays an important role in regulating a wide range of important cellular functions, including processing of cytoskeletal proteins. Loss of cytoskeletal proteins such as spectrin is an important characteristic in a variety of acute central nervous system injuries including ischemia, spinal cord injury and traumatic brain injury (TBI).(More)
INTRODUCTION Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability in children. Metabolic failure is an integral component of the pathological aftermath of TBI. The oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) is a valuable parameter for characterization and description of metabolic abnormalities; however, OEF measurement has required either invasive(More)