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The aim of this study was to clarify which cognitive mechanisms underlie Trail Making Test (TMT) direct and derived scores. A comprehensive review of the literature on the topic was carried out to clarify which cognitive factors had been related to TMT performance. Following the review, we explored the relative contribution from working memory,(More)
The abrupt onset of a novel event captures attention away from, and disrupts, ongoing task performance. Less obvious is that intentional task switching compares with novelty-induced behavioral distraction. Here we explore the hypothesis that intentional task switching and attentional capture by a novel distracter both activate a common neural network(More)
Humans can flexibly alter a plan of action to adjust their behavior adaptively in changing environments. Functional neuroimaging has shown distinct patterns of activation across a frontoparietal network responsible for switching and updating such plans of action or 'task sets.' However, little is known about the temporal order of activations within(More)
Cannabis is one of the most widely used illicit drugs in the world. In healthy individuals cannabis is associated with cognitive impairments. Research into the effect of cannabis use in schizophrenia has yielded contradictory findings. Our aim has been to explore the correlates of cannabis use in cognitive and psychopathological features, both(More)
Cognitive flexibility hinges on a readiness to direct attention to novel events, and on an ability to change one's mental set to find new solutions for old problems. Human event-related potential (ERP) studies have described a brain 'orienting' response to discrete novel events, marked by a frontally distributed positive potential peaking 300-400 ms(More)
The Trail Making Test (TMT) has been a useful assessment tool to investigate executive function. Several studies have recently improved the existing TMT norms by mean of large samples of healthy individuals stratified by a number of demographic variables from different populations. In contrast, criticisms have been raised about the utility of norms from(More)
Task-cueing studies suggest that the updating of sensory and task representations both contribute to behavioral task-switch costs [Forstmann, B. U., Brass, M., & Koch, I. (2007). Methodological and empirical issues when dissociating cue-related from task-related processes in the explicit task-cuing procedure. Psychological Research, 71(4), 393-400]. Here we(More)
Attention is a basic cognitive function and a prerequisite for other cognitive processes and is frequently impaired after traumatic brain injury. In the present study, 29 severe traumatic brain injury patients and 30 control subjects completed a battery of three neuropsychological tests of attention (WCST, TMT, Stroop). The aim was to clarify the(More)
This study aimed to clarify the neural substrates of behavioral switch and restart costs in intermittently instructed task-switching paradigms. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants were intermittently cued to switch or repeat their categorization rule (Switch task), or else they performed two perceptually identical control(More)
In this study, we sought to dissociate event-related potentials (ERPs) and the oscillatory activity associated with signals indicating feedback about performance (outcome-based behavioral adjustment) and the signals indicating the need to change or maintain a task set (rule-based behavioral adjustment). With this purpose in mind, we noninvasively recorded(More)