Jose A. Cancelas

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The Rho guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) Rac1 and Rac2 are critical signaling regulators in mammalian cells. The deletion of both Rac1 and Rac2 murine alleles leads to a massive egress of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSC/Ps) into the blood from the marrow, whereas Rac1-/- but not Rac2-/- HSC/Ps fail to engraft in the bone marrow of irradiated(More)
BACKGROUND Although disease remission can frequently be achieved for patients with neuroblastoma, relapse is common. The cancer stem cell theory suggests that rare tumorigenic cells, resistant to conventional therapy, are responsible for relapse. If true for neuroblastoma, improved cure rates may only be achieved via identification and therapeutic targeting(More)
The molecular events that regulate engraftment and mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells and progenitors (HSC/Ps) are still incompletely defined. We have examined the role of the Rho GTPases Rac1 and Rac2 in HSC engraftment and mobilization. Rac1, but not the hematopoietic-specific Rac2, is required for the engraftment phase of hematopoietic(More)
Faithful modeling of mixed-lineage leukemia in murine cells has been difficult to achieve. We show that expression of MLL-AF9 in human CD34+ cells induces acute myeloid, lymphoid, or mixed-lineage leukemia in immunodeficient mice. Some leukemia stem cells (LSC) were multipotent and could be lineage directed by altering either the growth factors or the(More)
BACKGROUND Rac1 GTPase, a member of the Ras-related Rho GTPase family, is the major Rac isoform present in platelets and has been shown to be involved in cell actin cytoskeleton reorganization and adhesion. Agonists that induce platelet secretion and aggregation also activate Rac1 GTPase, raising the possibility that Rac1 GTPase may be involved in(More)
Adult hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) exist in a relatively quiescent state in the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment to fulfill long-term self-renewal and multilineage differentiation functions, an event that is tightly regulated by extrinsic and intrinsic cues. However, the mechanism coordinating the quiescent state of HSCs and their retention in the BM(More)
Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is a clonal myeloproliferative disease (MPD) initiated by expression of the p210-BCR-ABL fusion protein. We demonstrate in a murine model of p210-BCR-ABL-induced MPD that gene targeting of Rac1 and Rac2 significantly delays or abrogates disease development. Attenuation of the disease phenotype is associated with severely(More)
Ras-related Rho GTPases regulate actin cytoskeletal organization, adhesion, gene transcription, and cell-cycle progression. The Rac subfamily of Rho GTPases and Cdc42 has been shown to play essential roles in hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) engraftment and mobilization. Here, we study the role of RhoA, a related Rho GTPase, in HSC functions. Using(More)
BACKGROUND The small Rho GTPases Rac1 and Rac2 have both overlapping and distinct roles in actin organization, cell survival, and proliferation in various hematopoietic cell lineages. The role of these Rac GTPases in erythropoiesis has not yet been fully elucidated. DESIGN AND METHODS Cre-recombinase-induced deletion of Rac1 genomic sequence was(More)
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (Nf1) mutation predisposes to benign peripheral nerve (glial) tumors called neurofibromas. The point(s) in development when Nf1 loss promotes neurofibroma formation are unknown. We show that inactivation of Nf1 in the glial lineage in vitro at embryonic day 12.5 + 1, but not earlier (neural crest) or later (mature Schwann cell),(More)