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Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a prototype for liver-specific pathogens in which the failure of the immune system to mount an effective response leads to chronic infection. Our understanding of the immune response to HBV is incomplete, largely due to the narrow host restriction of this pathogen and the limitations of existing experimental models. We have(More)
The intrahepatic immune environment is normally biased towards tolerance. Nonetheless, effective antiviral immune responses can be induced against hepatotropic pathogens. To examine the immunological basis of this paradox we studied the ability of hepatocellularly expressed hepatitis B virus (HBV) to activate immunologically naïve HBV-specific CD8⁺ T cell(More)
The virological and cellular consequences of persistent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection have been elusive due to the absence of the requisite experimental systems. Here, we report the establishment and the characteristics of persistent in vitro infection of human hepatoma-derived cells by a recently described HCV genotype 2a infectious molecular clone.(More)
UNLABELLED Approximately 50% of patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) have ongoing expression of interferon stimulated genes (ISGs) in the liver. It is unclear why this endogenous antiviral response is inefficient in eradicating the infection. Several viral escape strategies have been identified in vitro, including inhibition of interferon (IFN) induction(More)
Persistent hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is characterized by a weak and narrowly focused CD8+ T-cell response to HBV that is thought to reflect the induction of central and/or peripheral tolerance to HBV proteins in neonatal and adult onset infections, respectively. Immunotherapeutic strategies that overcome tolerance and boost these suboptimal(More)
To better define the mechanism(s) likely responsible for viral clearance during hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, viral clearance was studied in a panel of immunodeficient mouse strains that were hydrodynamically transfected with a plasmid containing a replication-competent copy of the HBV genome. Neither B cells nor perforin were required to clear the(More)
Virus infection triggers IFN immune defenses in infected cells in part through viral nucleic acid interactions, but the pathways by which dsDNA and DNA viruses trigger innate defenses are only partially understood. Here we present evidence that both retinoic acid-induced gene I (RIG-I) and mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) are required for(More)
Viral nucleic acids often trigger an innate immune response in infected cells. Many viruses, including hepatitis C virus (HCV), have evolved mechanisms to evade intracellular recognition. Nevertheless, HCV-permissive cells can trigger a viral RNA-, TLR7-, and cell-contact-dependent compensatory interferon response in nonpermissive plasmacytoid dendritic(More)
The chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) is an important model for studying the immune response to several human pathogens, but the study of correlates of immunity has been hindered by the fact that little is known about the epitope-binding specificity of chimpanzee (Patr) class I MHC. In the present study we have characterized the peptide binding specificity of(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major worldwide health problem. Our previous results showed that HCV evolved to gain the enhanced infectivity and altered buoyant density distribution during persistent infections in vitro. Here we showed that a point mutation I414T in HCV E2 was mainly responsible for these phenotypic changes. While the I414T mutation(More)