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Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) is likely to arise when an easily palatable, high-energy diet meets a ruminal environment not adapted to this type of substrate. Increase of short-chained fatty acids (SCFA) will occur. Eventually, this may result in a transient nadir of ruminal pH below 5.5. Two situations are likely to represent the risk of SARA. First,(More)
Recent changes in veterinary medicine have required quantitative epidemiological techniques for designing field surveys, identifying risk factors for multifactorial diseases, and assessing diagnostic tests. Several relevant techniques are brought together in the package of veterinary epidemiological computer software, WIN EPISCOPE 2.0, described in this(More)
An inactivated glycoprotein E-negative vaccine and an experimental glycoprotein D-subunit vaccine against bovine herpesvirus 1 (V1) were examined for their effectiveness in a randomized, double-bline, placebo-controlled field trial comprising 130 dairy farms. The use of these marker vaccines enabled us to monitor the incidence of infections in vaccinated(More)
A total of 4368 first lactation records for Holstein cows from 30 herds was used to estimate genetic parameters for yield, conformation traits, and the binary coded disease traits of udder edema, milk fever, retained placenta, metritis, displaced abomasum, ketosis, cystic ovary, mastitis, and lameness. Data on health, parentage, and yield came from an(More)
This review addresses the suggestion that the decline in dairy reproductive performance, as increasingly observed these days, may be due to a hampered process of metabolic adaptation in early lactating cows. In our opinion, adaptation to the negative energy balance is a gradual process. Because almost all cows do adapt in the long run, it is not possible to(More)
A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine three parameters of the quality of the raw milk marketed by milk selling points (MSPs) in Dar es Salaam region. Total bacterial count (TBC) was used as an indicator of the microbial quality of the milk; antimicrobial residues were determined; and the California mastitis test (CMT) was used to screen for(More)
To examine the development of teat end callosity thickness and roughness in early lactation and to quantify cow factors of interest, a system to classify teat end condition was developed. A distinction was made between rough and smooth rings around the teat orifice. In addition, a classification of the degree of callosity was developed. Kappa coefficients(More)
The prevalence of subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) was determined in 197 dairy cows in 18 herds in the Dutch province of Friesland. Samples of rumen fluid were taken by rumenocentesis from between five and 19 animals on each farm and the pH of each sample was determined. The body condition of 139 of the cows was scored approximately three weeks before they(More)
The objective of this study was to determine the association of metabolic parameters and cow associated factors with the conception rate at first insemination (FCR) in Thai dairy cows. The investigation was performed with 529 lactations from 32 smallholder dairy farms. At 3–6 weeks after parturition, blood samples and ruminal fluid were collected. Body(More)