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Proteolytic processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) through an endosomal/lysosomal pathway generates carboxy-terminal polypeptides that contain an intact beta-amyloid domain. Cleavage by as-yet unidentified proteases releases the beta-amyloid peptide in soluble form. In Alzheimer's disease, aggregated beta-amyloid is deposited in extracellular(More)
Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) protects cultured motor neurons from the toxic effects of mutations in Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD-1), which is responsible for a familial form of the disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Here, the endogenous heat shock response of motor neurons was investigated to determine whether a high threshold for activating(More)
Malignant gliomas of astrocytic origin are good candidates for gene therapy because they have proven incurable with conventional treatments. Although mutation or inactivation of the p53 tumor suppressor gene occurs at early stages in gliomas and is associated with tumor progression, many tumors including high-grade glioblastoma multiforme carry a(More)
To determine the types of gene structural alterations causing deficiency of adenine phosphoribosyl transferase (aprt) activity in spontaneous and chemically induced mutations of cultured somatic cells, we analyzed the restriction enzyme cleavage patterns of aprt gene sequences in mutant strains selected from Chinese hamster ovary cells. Patterns of(More)
Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is critical in the modulation of cholesterol and phospholipid transport between cells of different types. Human apoE is a polymorphic protein with three common alleles, APO epsilon 2, APO epsilon 3, and APO epsilon 4. ApoE4 is associated with sporadic and late-onset familial Alzheimer disease (AD). Gene dose was shown to have an(More)
Utrophin is a close homolog of dystrophin, the protein whose mutations cause Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Utrophin is present at low levels in normal and dystrophic muscle, whereas dystrophin is largely absent in DMD. In such cases, the replacement of dystrophin using a utrophin gene transfer strategy could be more advantageous because utrophin would(More)
Skeletal muscle fibers are infected efficiently by adenoviral vectors only in neonatal animals. This lack of tropism for mature skeletal muscle may be partly due to inefficient binding of adenoviral particles to the cell surface. We evaluated in developing mouse muscle the expression levels of two high-affinity receptors for adenovirus, MHC class I and the(More)
Recombinant adenovirus (AVR) promises to be an efficient vector in gene therapy for neuromuscular diseases, but in preclinical experiments the expression of therapeutic genes is shorter lived in immunocompetent animals than in immunocompromised hosts. Interferons (IFN), which are known to have a role both in early antiviral activity and in late cytotoxic(More)
Replication-defective (E1-E3-deleted) human adenovirus vectors are a promising means of therapeutic gene delivery to skeletal muscle cells. Since the tropism of adenovirus is nonselective, muscle-specific expression of systemically administered vectors can only be achieved by the use of a tissue-specific promoter/enhancer that is small enough to fit the(More)
The Coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) is a cell adhesion molecule that is highly expressed in the developing brain. CAR is enriched in growth cone particles (GCP) after subcellular fractionation. In GCP, we identified actin as an interaction partner of the cytoplasmic domain of CAR. In vivo, actin and CAR co-immunoprecipitate and co-localize. In(More)