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Protein kinase D1 (PKD1) is involved in cellular processes including protein secretion, proliferation and apoptosis. Studies suggest PKD1 is activated by various stimulants including gastrointestinal (GI) hormones/neurotransmitters and growth factors in a protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent pathway. However, little is known about the mechanisms of PKD1(More)
Lipid peroxidation (LPO) of stallion spermatozoa was assessed in fresh semen and in samples of the same ejaculates after freezing and thawing. Particular attention was paid to individual differences in the susceptibility to LPO and its possible relationship with freezability. Innate levels of LPO were very low in fresh spermatozoa but increased after(More)
The bombesin (Bn) receptor family includes the gastrin-releasing peptide (GRPR) and neuromedin B (NMBR) receptors, Bn receptor subtype 3 (BRS-3) and Bn receptor subtype 4 (BB(4)). They share 50% homology, yet their affinities for gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) differ. The determinants of GRP high affinity for GRPR and BB(4), and low affinity for BRS-3 are(More)
Src family kinases (SFK) play a central signaling role for growth factors, cytokines, G-protein-coupled receptors and other stimuli. SFKs play important roles in pancreatic acinar cell secretion, endocytosis, growth, cytoskeletal integrity and apoptosis, although little is known of the specific SFKs involved. In this study we demonstrate the SFK, Lyn, is(More)
Melatonin reduces proliferation in many different cancer cell lines. Thus, melatonin is considered a promising antitumor agent, promoting apoptosis in tumor cells while preserving viability of normal cells. Herein, we examined the effects of melatonin on the pancreatic AR42J tumor cell line. We have analyzed cytosolic-free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+) ](c)(More)
In an attempt to identify valuable markers for potential freezeability of the equine spermatozoa, three ejaculates were collected from five Andalusian stallions and frozen using a standard protocol. Before freezing, three apoptotic cell markers were studied by flow cytometry (early changes in sperm membranes, mitochondrial membrane potential and caspase(More)
The kinematics of the appearance of apoptotic markers was studied by flow cytometry and immunoblot assays in equine spermatozoa subjected to freezing and thawing. Caspase activity, low mitochondrial membrane potential, and increases in sperm membrane permeability were observed in all of the phases of the cryopreservation procedure. Freezing and thawing(More)
While, for a long time, the role of mitochondria in sperm physiology and pathology has been largely ignored, recent research points out the mitochondria as a major organelle with key roles in sperm function both under physiological and biotechnological conditions. This paper briefly reviews these novel findings regarding the role of mitochondria in sperm,(More)
The ability of stallion spermatozoa to produce nitric oxide (NO) before (fresh) and after freezing and thawing (FT) was evaluated by means of flow cytometry after loading the sperm suspension with the probe, 4,5-diaminofluorescenin diacetate. The presence of NO synthase (NOS) was investigated by Western blotting using anti-NOS1, anti-NOS3, or anti-universal(More)
Apoptosis has been recognized as a cause of sperm death during cryopreservation and a cause of infertility in humans, however there is no data on its role in sperm death during conservation in refrigeration; autophagy has not been described to date in mature sperm. We investigated the role of apoptosis and autophagy during cooled storage of stallion(More)