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UNLABELLED We present a first-draft digital reconstruction of the microcircuitry of somatosensory cortex of juvenile rat. The reconstruction uses cellular and synaptic organizing principles to algorithmically reconstruct detailed anatomy and physiology from sparse experimental data. An objective anatomical method defines a neocortical volume of 0.29 ± 0.01(More)
In the cerebral cortex, most synapses are found in the neuropil, but relatively little is known about their 3-dimensional organization. Using an automated dual-beam electron microscope that combines focused ion beam milling and scanning electron microscopy, we have been able to obtain 10 three-dimensional samples with an average volume of 180 µm(3) from the(More)
The biggest problem when analyzing the brain is that its synaptic connections are extremely complex. Generally, the billions of neurons making up the brain exchange information through two types of highly specialized structures: chemical synapses (the vast majority) and so-called gap junctions (a substrate of one class of electrical synapse). Here we are(More)
The advent of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in the 1950s represented a fundamental step in the study of neuronal circuits. The application of this technique soon led to the realization that the number of synapses changes during the course of normal life, as well as under certain pathological or experimental circumstances. Since then, one of the(More)
The synapses in the cerebral cortex can be classified into two main types, Gray's type I and type II, which correspond to asymmetric (mostly glutamatergic excitatory) and symmetric (inhibitory GABAergic) synapses, respectively. Hence, the quantification and identification of their different types and the proportions in which they are found, is(More)
One of the main pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the accumulation of plaques in the cerebral cortex, which may appear either in the neuropil or in direct association with neuronal somata. Since different axonal systems innervate the dendritic (mostly glutamatergic) and perisomatic (mostly GABAergic) regions of neurons, the accumulation(More)
Hippocampal sclerosis is the most frequent pathology encountered in resected mesial temporal structures from patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Here, we have used stereological methods to compare the overall density of synapses and neurons between non-sclerotic and sclerotic hippocampal tissue obtained by surgical resection from(More)
The quantification and measurement of synapses is a major goal in the study of brain organization in both health and disease. Serial section electron microscopy (EM) is the ideal method since it permits the direct quantification of crucial features such as the number of synapses per unit volume or the distribution and size of synapses. However, a major(More)
Although pyramidal cells are the main excitatory neurons in the cerebral cortex, it has recently been reported that they can evoke inhibitory postsynaptic currents in neighboring pyramidal neurons. These inhibitory effects were proposed to be mediated by putative axo-axonic excitatory synapses between the axon terminals of pyramidal cells and perisomatic(More)