José Ramón Santos

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Using quantitative deep HIV-1 sequencing in a subject who developed virological failure to deep salvage therapy with raltegravir, we found that most Q148R and N155H mutants detected at the time of virological failure originated from pre-existing minority Q148R and N155H variants through independent evolutionary clusters. Double 148R+N155H mutants were also(More)
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the expected activity of etravirine in clinical samples, according to mutational patterns associated with decreased virological response (VR). METHODS We identified 1586 routine clinical samples with resistance-associated mutations (RAMs) to nevirapine and efavirenz (K103N 60%, Y181C 37%, G190A 27%, V108I 13%). Concerning in vitro(More)
BACKGROUND Data on suppression of HIV replication in the CNS and on the subsequent risk of neurocognitive impairment using monotherapy with boosted protease inhibitors are limited. METHODS Ours was an exploratory cross-sectional study in patients on lopinavir/ritonavir-based monotherapy (LPV/r-MT) or standard triple therapy (LPV/r-ART) for at least 96(More)
OBJECTIVE HIV-1-infected active drug users (ADU) obtain smaller clinical benefits with antiretroviral therapy (HAART) compared to non-ADU subjects with sexually-transmitted HIV-1 infection. Therefore treatment strategies are required to address the specific issues arising in this challenging scenario. We describe the effectiveness of HAART provided in a(More)
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to analyze the incidence of new cases, survival of HIV-1-infected patients with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), and the characteristics of PML-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). METHODS Multicenter observational cohort study of all HIV-1-infected patients newly diagnosed of(More)
OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to develop and validate a population pharmacokinetic model for nevirapine in a population of HIV-infected adults and to evaluate the influence of nevirapine dosing regimen and patient characteristics on nevirapine trough concentration. METHODS HIV-infected adults receiving oral nevirapine for at least 4 weeks were(More)
BACKGROUND Although antiretroviral therapy improves immune response, some human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients present unsatisfactory CD4 T cell recovery despite achieving viral suppression, resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. METHODS Cross-sectional, case-control study to characterize the mechanism and to identify predictive factors(More)
BACKGROUND The advent of new antiretrovirals has expanded the therapeutic options for multiple drug-resistant HIV-1 infection. The role of recycled nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) in this scenario remains uncertain. METHODS Observational study of 122 consecutive patients with prior triple-class failure and multidrug-resistant HIV(More)
BACKGROUND The clinical relevance of ultrasensitive human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) genotypic resistance testing in antiretroviral treatment (ART)-experienced individuals remains unknown. METHODS This was a retrospective, multicentre, cohort study in ART-experienced, HIV-1-infected adults who initiated salvage ART including, at least 1(More)
OBJECTIVES The objective of this study was to evaluate the incidence, prevalence and clinical consequences of virological failure (VF) to raltegravir-based regimens in Spain. METHODS A multicentre, retrospective, observational study was performed in 10 tertiary hospitals (January 2006 to June 2013). The study included HIV-1-infected patients with loss of(More)