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BACKGROUND Mycobacterium tuberculosis and purified protein derivative (PPD) induce apoptosis in murine macrophages and apoptosis and necrosis in human monocytes and alveolar epithelial cells. Macrophages from bronchoalveolar lavages and granulomas from patients with tuberculosis (TB) present both types of cell death; however, the significance of the type of(More)
The interaction between the macrophage and Mycobacterium tuberculosis is mediated by a variety of macrophage membrane-associated proteins. Complement receptors have been implicated in the adherence of M. tuberculosis to macrophages. In the present work, the adherence and/or ingestion of M. tuberculosis H37Rv to human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) from(More)
Corticosteroids along with other immunomodulatory therapies remain as the mainstay of treatment tor all patients with noninfectious uveitis (NIU). However, the systemic side effects associated with the long-term use of these drugs has encouraged the development of new therapeutic agents in recent times. This review article discusses upcoming therapeutic(More)
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of visual loss in people aged 30 to 69 years. Most authorities recommend screening of the ocular fundus to prevent severe visual loss. The increasing incidence of diabetes mellitus and fewer ophthalmologists in many countries is leading to inadequate screening. Establishing an adequate system for DR screening(More)
As demonstrated in the previous chapters of this textbook, retinal pharmacotherapeutics is a rapidly developing area. The enormous burden of disease in an aging population will hopefully be met by significant improvements in our understanding and treatment of disease processes such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and diabetic retinopathy. This(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE To compare the anatomy of different retinal layers adjacent to areas of geographic atrophy (GA) to those of eyes with no known ocular diseases. PATIENTS AND METHODS Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) scans from eyes with GA were retrospectively reviewed. Two scans with no findings suggestive of GA changes on OCT(More)
A 78-year-old man complained of bilateral visual acuity loss. Optical coherence tomography examination showed bilateral macular schisis with fluid accumulation in the external retinal layers without vitreous traction. Fundus examination and fluorescein angiography were normal in both eyes. Both eyes were treated by phacoemulsification, intraocular lens(More)