José Prados

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BACKGROUND The normal length of the pancreaticobiliary union (common channel) in the pediatric population is not known, nor is the frequency of anomalous pancreaticobiliary union and the extent to which it is associated with pancreaticobiliary disease. METHODS ERCP was performed on 136 patients younger than 1 year (group 1) and 128 older than 1 year(More)
In three experiments in which rats were used as subjects, we developed an extinction procedure using a Morris pool. The animals were trained to find a hidden platform located at a fixed position and were then given extinction trials in which the platform was removed from the pool. When training and extinction were carried out in the same context and time(More)
In two experiments rats were pre-exposed to the landmarks surrounding a Morris pool while they swam to a platform with a beacon attached to it. They were then required to escape from the pool by finding the platform, without the beacon, in a new position. When the platform remained in the same place for each pre-exposure session, but was moved from session(More)
In this paper a series of studies and theoretical proposals about how preexposure to environmental cues affects subsequent spatial learning are reviewed. Traditionally, spatial learning had been thought to depend on gestaltic non-associative processes, and well established phenomena such as latent learning or instantaneous transfer have been taken to(More)
In a 2-D computer based search task, human participants were exposed to a compound stimulus containing both geometric and non-geometric information (a rectangle with colored walls) in such a way that a non-geometric cue, C1, was paired with a geometric cue, G1. Previous reinforcement of either kind of cue (geometric and non-geometric) resulted in second(More)
In two experiments, two groups of rats were trained in a navigation task according to either a continuous or a partial schedule of reinforcement. In Experiment 1, animals that were given continuous reinforcement extinguished the spatial response of approaching the goal location more readily than animals given partial reinforcement-a partial reinforcement(More)
In each of 3 experiments, rats were preexposed to the 4 distinct landmarks surrounding a circular pool before being trained to find a submerged platform located in a fixed position in the pool. When preexposure was to pairs of adjacent landmarks, it consistently retarded subsequent learning (a latent inhibition effect). When preexposure was to 1 landmark at(More)
The present study assessed the spatial abilities of male and female human participants using different versions of the non-navigational Corsi block-tapping test (CBT) and a search task. Males performed significantly better than females on the standard manual version of the CBT; however, the standard CBT does not allow discrimination between spatial memory(More)
In 2 experiments, rats received exposure to presentations of a footshock preceded by a given cue. In the PRf (partial reinforcement) condition, this cue also occurred in the absence of the shock; in the CRf (continuous reinforcement) condition, it did not. Subsequent testing in which a new stimulus was used to signal the shock (Experiment 1) showed that the(More)
Rats were given intermixed preexposure to the compound flavors AX and BX and to the compound CX in a separate block of trials (4 presentations of each compound). In Experiment 1, rats showed less generalization of conditioned aversion from AX to BX than from CX to BX, a perceptual learning effect. Experiment 2 showed that the formation of an excitatory(More)