José Miguel Esparza

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Policy Forum T he Global HIV Vaccine Enterprise convened a two-day workshop in May of 2007 to discuss humoral immune responses to HIV and approaches to design vaccines that induce viral neutralizing and other potentially protective antibody responses. The goals of this workshop were to identify key scientific issues, gaps, and opportunities that have(More)
—The term malware is coined to name any software with malicious intentions. One of the methods malware writers use for hiding their creations is executable packing. Packing consists of encrypting or hiding the real code of the executable in such a way that it is decrypted or unhidden in its execution. Widespread solutions to this issue first try to identify(More)
The increasing complexity of biomedical research is leading to the exploration of new models for large-scale collaborative research. This Big Science approach, however, has created anxieties and potential tensions between investigator-driven research, and research guided by a more organized, collaborative effort. Another potential tension exists between(More)
The bulk of current HIV vaccine research is conducted within the infectious disease paradigm that has been very successful in developing vaccines against many other viral diseases. Different HIV vaccine concepts, based on the induction of neutralizing antibodies and/or cell mediated immunity, have been developed and clinically tested over the last 30 years,(More)
In the current issue of Frontiers in Immunology, Jean-Marie Andrieu and collaborators , report results from non-human primate experiments designed to explore a new vaccine concept aimed at inducing tolerance to the simian immunode-ficiency virus (SIV) (1). This approach, which is significantly different from other vaccine concepts tested to date, resulted(More)
Sir Hans Sloane's account of inoculation as a means to protect against smallpox followed several earlier articles published in Philosophical Transactions on this procedure. Inoculation (also called 'variolation') involved the introduction of small amounts of infectious material from smallpox vesicles into the skin of healthy subjects, with the goal of(More)
Research that is initiated, designed or funded by sponsor agencies based in countries with relatively high social and economic development, and conducted in countries that are relatively less developed, gives rise to many important ethical challenges. Although clinical trials of HIV vaccines began ten years ago in the US and Europe, an increasing number of(More)
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