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BACKGROUND Non-fatal outcomes of disease and injury increasingly detract from the ability of the world's population to live in full health, a trend largely attributable to an epidemiological transition in many countries from causes affecting children, to non-communicable diseases (NCDs) more common in adults. For the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and(More)
Background The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 provides an up-to-date synthesis of the evidence for risk factor exposure and the attributable burden of disease. By providing national and subnational assessments spanning the past 25 years, this study can inform debates on the importance of addressing risks in context.
This 6-month follow-up study compared 64 men and 37 women hospitalized for cocaine dependence. Drug histories, sociodemographic characteristics, psychiatric diagnoses, and Addiction Severity Index (ASI) scores were compared during hospitalization; cocaine use and ASI scores were compared at 6 months. During hospitalization, women had significantly more(More)
Background Improving survival and extending the longevity of life for all populations requires timely, robust evidence on local mortality levels and trends. The Global Burden of Disease 2015 Study (GBD 2015) provides a comprehensive assessment of all-cause and cause-specifi c mortality for 249 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1980 to 2015. These(More)
Craving is a major factor in addiction, predicting poorer outcome to treatment To improve our understanding of craving for alcohol, we have compared in the laboratory the effects of inducing craving for alcohol by exposure to the sight and the smell of an alcoholic beverage, imagery of craving scripts, and recall of autobiographical memories of craving. We(More)
BACKGROUND Cocaine dependence is a public health problem affecting 2 million individuals in USA. Craving is a predictor of subsequent cocaine use and is related to changes in brain activity in networks involving the prefrontal cortex. METHODS We investigated the efficacy of one session of high frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS)(More)
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by persistent symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and/or impulsivity. The proportion of patients diagnosed with ADHD receiving pharmacological treatments has increased enormously in recent years. Despite the well established efficacy and the good safety(More)
Cocaine addiction is a chronic relapsing disorder associated with severe medical and psychosocial complications. However, there are no approved medications for cocaine dependent individuals. Modafinil, a medication that differs chemically and pharmacologically from other central nervous system stimulants, has been suggested to be potentially useful for this(More)
Gabapentin is an antiepileptic drug shown to be effective in the treatment of pain disorders and appears to be useful as well for several psychiatric disorders, including bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders, alcohol withdrawal and cocaine dependence. Gabapentin, at a dose of 600 mg three times a day, was evaluated as an add-on medication to a standard(More)