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Washed suspensions of the ruminal ciliates, Isotricha prostoma and Entodinium simplex, concentrated C(14)-labeled oleic, palmitic, stearic, and linoleic acids within the cells during short incubation periods. Radioautographs demonstrated that oleic acid-1-C(14) was hydrogenated to stearic acid by I. prostoma, and Warburg manometric data showed that the(More)
The development of snake antivenoms more than a century ago should have heralded effective treatment of the scourge of snakebite envenoming in impoverished, mostly rural populations around the world. That snakebite still exists today, as a widely untreated illness that maims, kills and terrifies men, women and children in vulnerable communities, is a cruel(More)
Clostridium perfringens phospholipase C (Cp-PLC), also called alpha-toxin, is the major virulence factor in the pathogenesis of gas gangrene. Previously, a cellular UDP-Glc deficiency was related with a hypersensitivity to the cytotoxic effect of Cp-PLC. Because UDP-Glc is required in the synthesis of proteoglycans, N-linked glycoproteins, and(More)
The rumen ciliate Epidinium ecaudatum was cultured for 6 months in the presence of two strains of bacteria, starch, alfalfa, linseed oil meal, and buffered saline. The cultures required daily transfer and addition of fresh substrate. The protozoan degraded starch, soybean oil meal, linseed oil meal, and cottonseed oil meal, and the fermentation end products(More)
Antivenoms are preparations of intact or fragmented (F(ab')2 or Fab) immunoglobulin G (IgG) used in human medicine to treat the severe envenomings resulting from the bites and stings of various animals, such as snakes, spiders, scorpions, or marine animals, or from the contact with poisonous plants. They are obtained by fractionating plasma collected from(More)
We have evaluated for the first time the impact of a solvent/detergent (S/D) treatment on the quality and in vivo neutralization potency of horse-derived whole IgG antivenom used in the treatment of viperid snake bite envenoming in Central America. The S/D treatment by 1% tri (n-butyl) phosphate (TnBP) - 1% Triton X-45 at 22-25 degrees C was applied either(More)
Insecticides containing organophosphate, chlorinated hydrocarbon, and carbamate were tested with bovine ruminal ingesta fractions. Rumen bacteria exposed to insecticide levels of 0 to 500 ppm in rumen fluid for 4 hr were inoculated into rumen fluid-starch feed extract medium. No apparent significant bacterial count inhibitions were noted. Also, when(More)