José María Gutiérrez

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Several myotoxins have been isolated from Bothrops snake venoms during the last 10 years. All of them are group II basic phospholipases A2, although some lack enzymatic activity (i.e. Lys-49 variants). These myotoxins appear as an antigenically related family of proteins occurring in many, but not all, Bothrops venoms, bearing a close structural and(More)
June 2006 | Volume 3 | Issue 6 | e150 Envenoming resulting from snake bites is an important public health hazard in many regions, particularly in tropical and subtropical countries [1–3]. Although antivenoms are being produced by various laboratories in every continent, the burden of snake bite envenoming— causing both morbidity and mortality—still has a(More)
The biochemical characteristics of hemorrhagic metalloproteinases isolated from snake venoms are reviewed, together with their role in the pathogenesis of the local tissue damage characteristic of crotaline and viperine snake envenomations. Venom metalloproteinases differ in their domain structure. Some enzymes comprise only the metalloproteinase domain,(More)
The effect of several drugs on the edema-forming activity of Bothrops asper venom was studied plethysmographically using the mouse foot pad assay. Bothrops asper venom induced a dose-dependent edema which developed rapidly and peaked 1 hr after envenomation. Incubation of venom with EDTA before injection resulted in a significant reduction of edema. In(More)
Venoms comprise mixtures of peptides and proteins tailored by Natural Selection to act on vital systems of the prey or victim. Here we review our proteomic protocols for uncoiling the composition, immunological profile, and evolution of snake venoms. Our long-term goal is to gain a deep insight of all viperid venom proteomes. Knowledge of the inter- and(More)
Venoms from eight Bothrops spp. were fractionated by ion-exchange chromatography on CM-Sepharose at pH 8.0 for the purification of myotoxins. Chromatographic profiles showed differences regarding myotoxic components among these venoms. B. alternatus, B. atrox and B. jararaca venoms did not show the major basic myotoxic fractions identified in the other(More)
A large variety of snake toxins evolved from PLA2 digestive enzymes through a process of ‘accelerated evolution’. These toxins have different tissue targets, membrane receptors and mechanisms of alteration of the cell plasma membrane. Two of the most commonly induced effects by venom PLA2s are neurotoxicity and myotoxicity. Here, we will discuss how these(More)
The coagulant, defibrinating, fibrino lytic and fibrinogenolytic activities of venoms from ten species of Costa Rican crotaline snakes were studied, together with the neutralization of these effects by a polyvalent antivenom. The venoms of Bothrops asper, B. schlegelii, B. nummifer, B. godmani, Lachesis muta and Crotalus durissus induced a coagulant effect(More)
Species of the genus Bothrops induce the vast majority of snakebite envenomings in Latin America. A preclinical study was performed in the context of a regional network of public laboratories involved in the production, quality control and development of antivenoms in Latin America. The ability of seven polyspecific antivenoms, produced in Argentina,(More)
Envenomations by the snake Bothrops asper are characterized by prominent local tissue damage (i.e. myonecrosis), blistering, hemorrhage and edema. Various phospholipases A2 and metalloproteinases that induce local pathological alterations have been purified from this venom. Since these toxins induce a conspicuous inflammatory response, it has been(More)