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Red (retro)-carotenoids accumulate in chloroplasts of Buxus sempervirens leaves during the process of winter leaf acclimation. As a result of their irregular presence, different leaf colour phenotypes can be found simultaneously in the same location. Five different colour phenotypes (green, brown, red, orange, and yellow), with a distinct pattern of pigment(More)
The red leaf coloration of several plant species during autumn and winter is due to the synthesis of phenolic compounds such as anthocyanins or red carotenoids. The latter occur very rarely and are non-ubiquitous and taxonomically restricted compounds. The present study shows that the leaves of common box ( Buxus sempervirens L.) accumulate red carotenoids(More)
Desiccation-tolerance ability in photosynthetic organisms is largely based on a battery of photoprotective mechanisms. Xanthophyll cycle operation induced by desiccation in the absence of light has been previously proven in the desiccation-tolerant fern Ceterach officinarum. To understand the physiological function of xanthophyll cycle induction in darkness(More)
The development of desiccation tolerance by vegetative tissues was an important step in the plants' conquest of land. To counteract the oxidative stress generated under these conditions the xanthophyll cycle plays a key role. Recent reports have shown that desiccation itself induces de-epoxidation of xanthophyll cycle pigments, even in darkness. The aim of(More)
The short-term effects of the herbicide glyphosate (1.25-10 mM) on the growth, nitrogen fixation, carbohydrate metabolism, and shikimate pathway were investigated in leaves and nodules of nodulated lupine plants. All glyphosate treatments decreased nitrogenase activity rapidly (24 h) after application, even at the lowest and sublethal dose used (1.25 mM).(More)
Glyphosate is a herbicide that blocks the shikimic acid pathway. Three Bradyrhizobium japonicum strains with different sensitivities to glyphosate were used to test the effect of this herbicide on the phenolic metabolism of nodulated soybeans and on the bacteroid nitrogenase activity. Glyphosate caused an inhibition in the bacteroid nitrogenase activity(More)
Summer 2003 was unusually hot in Western Europe, with local droughts and an intense heatwave, that led to a massive damage in vegetation. Since high temperatures are supposed to generate photooxidative stress, we analysed photoprotective responses in leaves of the evergreen boxtree (Buxus sempervirens L.) during summer 2003. All the photoprotective(More)
Two xanthophyll cycles have been described in higher plants: the violaxanthin xanthophyll (V or VAZ) cycle, which is present in all species, and the taxonomically restricted lutein epoxide xanthophyll (Lx) cycle, which involves the light-induced de-epoxidation of Lx to lutein (L) and its epoxidation back to Lx in low light. Laboratory experiments indicate(More)
The earliest land photosynthesis would have increased the risk of photo-oxidations and the demand of anti-oxidative protection. In this work, we aimed to determine the evolutionary trends in photoprotection across a wide representation of the plant kingdom and to verify whether the non-ubiquitous lutein-epoxide (Lx) cycle is a polyphyletic or an ancient(More)
Soil contamination due to petroleum-derived products is an important environmental problem. We assessed the impacts of diesel oil on plants (Trifolium repens and Lolium perenne) and soil microbial community characteristics within the context of the rhizoremediation of contaminated soils. For this purpose, a diesel fuel spill on a grassland soil was(More)